It’s a fact that every star follows a life cycle- it’s born by the combination of cosmic gases, it grows up, ages, and finally, collapses. As per scientists, our sun is a young star that is heading towards its five billionth birthday. It has been predicted that it will collapse after 5 to 10 billion years from now. Have you ever thought what will happen to it and its planets once it dies? Read on further to know what astronomers predict about this:
Excessive greenhouse effect
Until its final stage, the sun would have consumed all the hydrogen atoms within its body, and the resultant mass of helium will emit an abundance of heat and light. The intensity of its heat will cause evaporation of entire water content on the earth, and there will be a dense cloud in our atmosphere. The cloud will protect our planet from the excessive heat supply from the sun for sometimes. But after this, it could be possible that the earth’s temperature will rise to 1000 degree Celsius or more. At that stage, there will be no life on it, except for some thermophilic bacteria.
The sun will expand
Once the sun uses up all its fuel, it will expand greatly in size. Even though it will become larger and wider, it will start to become cooler day by day, and its bright colour will start fainting. This phase in its life cycle has been named as the red giant. Although this is how the sun’s demise will occur, it is not the same for all stars. Smaller stars, known as red dwarfs, can simply disappear once they use up their fuels. On the other hand, giants stars are so big that they’ll fuse heavier elements until they develop an iron core before becoming a supernova star.
Then it will shrink
Over time, the sun will consume its entire helium atoms too, but it won’t be able to do the same with carbon atoms. And, it will start to shrink to become much smaller than its original size. This stage of its life has been named as a white dwarf. This sun remnant will continue shinning for billions of years, after which it will turn into a dead black dwarf. Scientists have no idea about what will happen to the sun at this stage as the universe is not old enough to have a black dwarf.
Planet’s orbit will change
By the time the sun dies, everything on Earth will be dead, but that doesn’t mean the planets and all other bodies within the solar system will disappear. They will still be there; however, their physician constitution will change. Once the sun reaches its red giant stage, it will expand to engulf its orbiting planets. You might be thinking that these planets would burn to a crisp. Surprisingly, the opposite will happen. As the Sun expands closer to the planets, the gravitational pull on them will weaken. This weakening gravitational force will lead these planets to move away from the sun and spiral across safer orbits. But it's possible that Mercury and Venus- the two nearest planet to the sun, will be consumed.
The Milky Way and Andromeda galaxy will collide
As per a study by NASA, the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies are moving toward each other at a speed of 402,000 kilometers per hour. This means that after ten billion or more years from now there will be an inevitable collision between the two galaxies.
Hope you liked reading this compendium on sun’s life cycle. If you want to know more on this topic, consider reading books such as From Sun to Life, Our Explosive Sun, The Sun’s Heartbeat, etc. Or, you may read articles published by the NASA Headquarters Library. However, if your assignment writing tasks are impeding you from reading these sorts of information, then seek help from Instant Assignment Help. They are one of the leading science assignment help providers working across the GCC member states.