Factors of Hypertension

Physiological Concepts Associated with the Hypertension

Introduction to Factors of Hypertension

Hypertension also referred as increased blood pressure is a medical condition in which the pressure of blood in arteries is elevated most of the times. High blood pressure do not show any significant symptoms but long term elevation in blood pressure levels can cause lethal effects on heart and other body organs. The major risk associated with this medical condition is myocardial infraction, heart failure, decrease in visual efficiency, renal failure and other chronic disorders.

The overall report will be based on diagnosis and management of hypertension. It will mainly focus on signs, symptoms and origin associated with hypertension. It will also include various types of investigative processes involved in assessing the medical history of the patient. Lastly it will also include care services and treatments for hypertension.

1.1 Physiological origin of Hypertension

According various hypothesis and research it has been suggested that change in environmental factors can play a very crucial role in originating various types of cardiac associated disorders in individuals. An overall influence of over and under nutrition has also played a very important role in contributing towards these issues. The origin of hypertension in developing offspring is observed when the mother of foetus is suffering from obesity. This is has significantly increased the chances of cardiovascular strokes in elderly individuals. Secondary effects of elevated levels of hypertension also influence the normal metabolism and energy pathway system which however increase the chances of obesity in later stages of life.

1.2 Signs and symptoms of Hypertension

The most dangerous aspect of increased blood pressure is that a person do not realise he/she is suffering from hypertension problems. The  most effective way of diagnosing the presence of high blood pressure is through regular medical check-up. Common symptoms of high pressure may vary from individual to individual depending upon the mechanism of and functioning of the body. Major symptoms can be as follows.

  • Increased headache throughout the day.
  • Fatigue and laziness accompanied by confusion
  • Vision deficiency
  • Angina pectoris.
  • Shortness in breath
  • Heart palpitations
  • Haem-urea
  • Irregular pounding in chest and heart

1.3  Contributory factors to the onset of Hypertension.

There are various factors which contribute towards increased blood pressure. They are discussed below.


Obesity is one of the most common factors which leads to elevate the blood pressure levels.  More the weight of a person more oxygen will be required.

Excess of salt content

This leads to reattainment of water and fluid which increases the blood pressure.

Physical inactivity

Inactivity tends to decreases the flow of blood in the body which contributes to hypertension

Stress and depression

Increased tension levels are the main causative factors which lead to increased fluctuation in blood pressure levels.

2.1 Process of referral to identified specialist services

When a person suffers from different signs and symptoms of high blood pressure it is very necessary fort them to consult physician or GP, so that they are able to guide them in a better way. GP can refer them for different treatments and diagnosis so that the problem of elevated blood pressure levels is reduced.

2.2  Investigative processes and procedures in Hypertension

There are many investigative process which can be used to detect the presence of high blood pressure. It can be as follows

Blood pressure measurement

This is one of the most initial methods of measuring the level of pressure with the help of blood pressure cuff. It is also referred as sphygmomanometer. The pressure units are generally demoted by millimetres of mercury. The ideal or normal blood pressure is recorded to be 120/80 mm of Hg

Laboratory test

These tests are generally conducted to analyses different conditions associated with blood pressure. Test such as urine analysis, urine albumins and fasting glucose levels comes under laboratory test,

Non-laboratory test

Diagnostic test such as electrocardiography, eye test and physical exams are included under non laboratory test.

3.1 Compare and contrast care services available in Hypertension

Team based care and medical assistance is very important so that healthcare professionals are able to manage the blood pressure level consistently. According to meta analysis it has been reviewed that care services provided by nurses and other physicians can significantly lower down the systolic blood pressure to a certain levels. Other care services can be routine blood pressure measurement so that they are able to control the elevated levels of pressure. Timely laboratory and non-laboratory diagnosis can also assure to lower down the blood pressure levels. Individuals who are suffering from hypertension should visit their GP on regular basis so that their blood pressure levels are controlled and managed effectively. If the condition of patient is deteriorating then general practitioner should refer them to specialist so that their condition is improved.

3.2 Roles and responsibilities of the professionals in relation to Hypertension

The main responsibility of all the health care professionals is to effectively improve the hypertension control by adhering to different therapies and regimens. It is very important for tall the healthcare professionals such as pharmacists, paramedics, nurses and physicians  to work together  in order to improve the lifestyles and elevations in blood pressure levels so the individual is able to live a normal life. It is the responsibility of nurses and other health officials to develop strategies and plan that can effectively reduce the cases of hypertension in various communities. They should constantly reinforce messages so that people are aware of risk associated with hypertension.

3.3  Ranges of treatment available for patients with Hypertension

There are wide range of treatments available for reducing the impact of high blood pressure. The best remedy for decreasing the elevated blood pressure is modification to be done in lifestyles. It is one of the most effective treatment which can cure many illness related to heart and blood pressure. Considerable changes in dietary habits, physical activity and maintaining weight can help in treating this medical condition to a greater extent. Dietary changes tends to lower down the pressure levels which also decreases the chances of encountering heart diseases such as cardiovascular strokes, myocardial infraction and heart failure.

3.4  Monitoring processes involved for Hypertension.

There are many factors that affect the blood pressure levels hence it is very important to measure sand monitor the pressure levels in accurate manner. Initially it is very essential to understand the difference between the left and right arm For monitoring the blood pressure level without any error, the cuffs should be properly fitted in arm. While the machine is recording the pressure no activity which involves movement should be conducted. It is very important to maintain the same sitting position throughout the recording so that fluctuation are avoided. Recording two to three readings is preferable. After recording the pressure levels it is very necessary to interpret the results in correct manner so that systolic and diastolic measurements are accurate.

4.1 Extent to which an individual diagnosed with Hypertension need to adapt his/her lifestyle

Based on the degree of rise in blood pressure levels it is very important for an individual to identify the extent of lifestyle changes he/she need to adapt so that the impact of elevated pressure levels is reduced. In many cases it is reported that the main cause of hypertension is obesity and stress. If a person has  severe medical condition then it is very important to bring considerable modification in lifestyles so that his/her mental and physical health is improved to a higher extent.

4.2 Range of strategies to help individuals cope with lifestyle changes caused by hypertension.

There are range of strategies that can be adopted by various individuals in order to reduce the complications associated with hypertension. One of the most important strategy can be control in dietary factors which can prevent the further elevation of pressure levels at the initial stages. Reduced salt intake such as sodium and potassium salt intake can possibly  decrease the high blood pressure by eliminating water and other fluids out of the body.

4.3  Prognosis and potential long term outcomes for the individual for Hypertension.

The risk of long term high blood pressure levels gradually increases the chances of various types of diseases associated with heart.They can be ischemic heart disease, fluctuating heart rates and palpitations, peripheral cardiovascular diseases and heart failure. There ate many other complications that are linked to increase levels of blood pressure such as  kidney failure, cognitive impairment and atherosclerosis.


The overall report was based on hypertension which is associated with elevated level of blood pressure. It also included the physiology associated with hypertension and various signs and symptoms related to hypertension. Further the study also explored different investigative process involved in determining the presence of high blood pressure levels. Roles and responsibilities of various healthcare professionals in relation to pressure were also discussed in the study. The study also explored the range of treatments and diagnosis which can be implemented in decreasing the blood pressure levels. Lastly it concluded range if strategies that can be adopted by people to change the lifestyle so that the prevalence of high blood pressure is reduced.


  • Abalos, E. and, 2014. Antihypertensive drug therapy for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy.
  • Care, A.S. and,  2016. Perinatal resveratrol supplementation to spontaneously hypertensive rat dams mitigates the development of hypertension in adult offspring. Hypertension.
  • Carrizzo, A. and, 2013. Resveratrol improves vascular function in patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia by modulating NO metabolism. Hypertension.
  • Dasgupta, K. and, 2014. The 2014 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, prevention, and treatment of hypertension. Canadian Journal of Cardiology.
  • Filipovský, J. and, 2012. Diagnosis and treatment of arterial hypertension. 2012 Guidelines of the Czech Hypertension Society. Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství.
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