Enquiry into Health Care Management

Introduction To Health Care Management

The following report is based on the health care management in public field. In the community, the commonly spread problem is obesity. This issue is most common in all over the world and obesity is a root of the different diseases such as heart attack, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, back pain, ulcers, skin infections etc (Buchbinder and Shanks, 2011). This research report is based on the obesity and its related diseases and its effects on human health. The report describes health actions from the community and required practices to manage it. The impact of health problem and various interventions to control health diseases are also described in this report.

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Task 1

1.1 Contemporary health problem which is widely spread in the community

In the present time, easy to prepare and fast food had made the life of people easier. These fast foods and other beverages contain high calories and fat which increases the weight of the person which give rise to many diseases (Wonderlich,2007). From the research, it has found that obesity and overweight are common problem in community and it is generally found in adults and children. There is no doubt that, people are more aware about their health and prefer to eat healthy food. To make the body in a perfect shape, most of the people do various exercise and some prefer to go gym (Fallon and Zgodzinski, 2011). Due to the busy life individual are consuming fast food and other meals. The regular and frequently consumption of such type of food increases the weight of the person and when this weight is more than expected t than it is called overweight which can also be termed obesity in the terms of medical.

Obesity is a medical term in which the fat of the body is excess to a certain limitations and it may have a negative effect of the health on person (Frank and Engelke, 2003). This problem reduces the life expectancy and increases health problems In the medical terms, if weight of a person is more than its body’s mass index than, it counts in obesity. Obesity give rises to various diseases such as heart diseases, obstructive, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, different types of cancers, osteoarthritis (Merson, Black and Mills, 2006). The reason behind the obesity is consumption of excessive food which contains high calories and fat, beverages and excessive use of alcohol, lack of physical activities, genetic problems, endocrine disorders, long treatment of any complex diseases in which patients frequently consume medicine etc. On the other hand, it can be seen that some people eat little but they gain weight because they have a slow metabolism (Marlow, 2008). The slow metabolism takes time to digest the food and from this it results in increasing weight of a person.

The weight of body varies with the age and gender. The classification of the body can be done on the basis of underweight, normal weight, overweight, class I, II and III obesity. Obesity is not only found in old age people. The risk of overweight and obesity is also increasing in children and teens (Kumanyika, Satcher and Brownson, 2007). So it is required to control the obesity health problem and try to follow the diet plan. The treatment of obesity has two objectives; one is to achieve a right and healthy weight and second is maintain the weight with the time. On the other hand, dieting and regular physical exercise are the easiest ways to lose weight. In the diet plan, obese person have to take the healthy food in which he has to avoid oily and fat food. He also has to cut down regular calories from his daily diet and follow some physical exercise to burn the extra fat and calories (Waters, Swinburn, Seidell and Uauy, 2011). In the diet food, obese person has to include dietary fibre which helps him to overcome the problem of obesity. If, the diet plan and physical exercise is not effective, individual takes another step which is surgery. This helps to reduce the stomach fat volume and extra fat from the different body parts.

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1.2 Analysis of public health actions on the basis of historical, political and conceptual basis and transformation of policies into practice

Public health and its functions:

Public health refers to a combination of art and science which is used to prevent the community from the diseases and capable the people in such as way so that they can live a longer life (Parizkova and Hills, 2005). It is work which is done field of health and social care sector to create the awareness in people and the reasons behind this is creating an awareness regarding the various diseases and the precaution to prevent from the diseases. The focus of public health interventions is to improve and understand the importance of quality of life and health and providing the treatments of diseases (Ayadi and Young, 2006). Awareness among the individual and different community about the diseases can be done with the help of educational programs, develop policies, conduct research, organize some conferees and regulate health system to promote healthy life. The impact and result of these programs and events can be measure by consciousness of the public related to the diseases (Davidson, 2007). From the research it has found that, with the help of various public health actions and important initiatives, it have improved life of people across the world by 30%. People are showing the consciousness towards their health and following the healthier diet. In the future time, it can be expected that this percentage will be increased around the world and helps in controlling over the various and common health problem (Kasbia, 2005).

Transformation of policy into practices

If we talk about Obesity, than it is a common problem in UK which is widely spread and affects the health of the people. The busy schedules, lack of physical exercise and frequent consumption of high calories food and drinks are the reason behind obesity in people. The government of UK are taking various serious actions in the direction in reducing obesity problem in community (Davidson, 2007). Government had made Childhood obesity legislation act, 2013 in which it gives more emphasize on the educating the parents about the reasons of obesity and the ways of various preventions. The regular public health campaigns organized by the government and various NGO's assist in creating awareness in people about the obesity (Mulrine, 2013). The aims of these campaigns are to avoid fat and calories foods and increase access to physical fitness spaces. On the other hand, government gives orders to the school and colleges to include a session which is related to the health problems and for regular check up once in a year so that, causes of the obesity can be found (Buchbinder and Shanks, 2011).

UK government has also banned those foods and drinks which are unhealthy for people and affects their body. The best example is, government gives instructions to the companies about reducing the amount of salt in the food and to cut down the extra fat and calories from beverages and meals (Wonderlich, 2007). Government also banned the packed foods and gave instructions to mention all the ingredient of the product which are used in preparing of the meal. The reason behind this is that, some ingredients are artificial that affects the health of the people and change the level of hormones in body. These may be the cause of obesity in the people. To implement such type of policies, government organize external audit in which it checks the quality of the food and beverages and find out that organizations implement these policies or not (Fallon and Zgodzinski, 2011). If any company has found not follow the rules than government will cancel out the licence of that company or ban the importing those products in country.

1.3 Health needs of a community using epidemiological data for Obesity which is widely spread in community

Epidemiological data for Obesity in UK

Obesity has attract the attention of the government of UK and various health care organizations because it is a major health hazards. National and international health care organizations have increase their attentions on obesity epidemic because some medical experts think that obesity is a main origin of various illness and diseases and reduce the expected life of a person (Goldsmith, 2010). In this context, some concern public health agencies of UK take the initiatives and start taking some important steps in creating the awareness in people. From the research it has found that the major segment of age group 23-25 are suffering from obesity and their increased weight is counting in overweight. In the 2013, the obesity rate was 32.8% and it increases in 2014 which is 33.7%. This percentage is growing very fast and and increase the risk of the various illness due to the obesity.

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From the research in 2012, it has found that 24% men and 25% women in UK are obese who are comes under the age of adult. This ratio has increased by 13% after the 1993. On the other hand, 42% men and 32% women are comes under the categories of overweight. It means that most of the adults are obese and overweight. From the survey in various in schools of UK, it has found that the 10% 5 years old age children in class are finding obese and 12% are overweight. This a worrying things for the government because when these children are move to the childhood stage to adulthood age, these overweight and obesity increase the risk of the various complex and serious diseases (Frank and Engelke, 2003). It has been predicted that if the this ratio of the children increase day by day than this generation will died soon before their parents. This increase weight gives born of cardiovascular diseases which leads to heart attacks problems. So from the above discussion, it has been clear that obesity is a wider health problem in UK and it is widely spread in children (5- 10) and adults (23-45 age).

Health needs for obese people

The people who are suffering from the obesity, they required more care and attentions. If they not get the proper treatments than the risk factors of the other diseases will increases and affects their health (Merson, Black and Mills, 2006). So for obese people, the health needs are as follows.

  1. Eating a balanced diet and control on over calories.
  2. Take a proper guidelines from the weight loss management health professionals.
  3. Join a local weight loss group.
  4. Prepare the diet plan and cut down the high fat and more salted foods and meals.
  5. Start physical exercise such as walking, swimming, jogging about 30 minutes per day (Marlow, 2008).
  6. Eat slowly and avoid those situations which influenced for overeating.
  7. Try to avoid fast food and beverages which contains the high calories.
  8. Try to quite the addiction of alcohol and smoking.
  9. Try to include various fruits, vegetables, especially whole grains, low fat milk and milk products (Kumanyika, Satcher and Brownson, 2007).


2.1 Different key approaches for describing pattern of health and disease and the problems in UK

Obesity is common problem all over the world but it is more widely spread in UK. The common approach for describing the pattern of health and diseases is epidemiology. Epidemiology is the approach which is used in defining the patterns, causes and effects of health and diseases in a a particular area in defined population. This study helps in finding the frequency, distributions and determinates of diseases in a person (Waters, Swinburn, Seidell and Uauy, 2011). This also helps in s study of the various statistical data, collection and designing of the information and finding the various results with respect to the available information and data.

As per the given scenario, in UK, near 3 men and women from the 5 persons are obese and underweight. Form the research data, it has found that UK is the third country where the obesity and overweight is increasing with higher rates (Parizkova and Hills, 2005). To find the pattern of the health and diseases, epidemiological approach can be used. This is helps in finding the various patterns related to the obesity and helps in understanding the reasons of this diseases. The study from 1985 to 2014, it has found that more than 30% people in UK are either obese or overweight and this ratio will increase in upcoming year (Ayadi and Young, 2006). From the population of UK, more 68% men and 60% women in UK are obese and overweight. The body mass index are overweight people are over 25 and for obese people, it is more than 30. From the study, it has clear that the problem of obesity and overweight in the children and adults growing very fast and it is a major problem for the UK. The study shows that 28% boys and 32 % girls are obese as well as overweight and this percentage is more that the study of 1982.

The analysis of the various trend data of 190 countries, it has found that BMI of adult male is more than 25 in 2013 which has increased from 2012. In the case of female, this ratio has increased by 32% to 40% in the same duration. On the other hand, the obesity in the children are increasing from the last year of 2012. More than the 30% children are suffering from overweight and obesity (Davidson, 2007). The age of these children are from 5 to 12 years. In addition to this, the teenagers of UK area are also facing the similar problem. The reason behind this increasing the ration of obesity in the people are more busy life, lack physical movement, overeating, frequently consumption of the fat products, more use of alcohol etc (Kasbia, 2005). These all are the reason which affect the health of the human being. Due this, various problems facing by UK community such increase the problems related to the heart, cancer, diabetes etc.

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2.2 Impact of Obesity on community

Obesity create the long lasting effects on UK community. The impacts are very deep and vast and gives the real effects on nations, individual and the future generations. In the UK, obesity is a second diseases by which the people died every day (Davidson, 2007). The use of smoking and tobacco continuously declines but the obesity rate is increasing and it might be possible that the death due obesity may exceed to the death due to tobacco. The impact of obesity on UK community are as follows.

Physical or Health impact: Due to the obesity, community and the living people have face the various diseases such as heart diseases, stroke, high blood pressures, diabetes, unhealthy cholesterol, sleep apnea, asthma, infertility, kidney stone and 11 types of various cancers (Diseases and Conditions of Obesity, 2015).

Social impact: Another impact which is creating by obesity on UK community is are discrimination, lower quality of life, people not giving the respect to obese person etc. The obese people are always avoiding by the others such as at the time of job, company not showing the interest on hiring the obese person. So this is counts in the discrimination on the basis of health of a person. These types of persons are not getting the concern of the other people and unable to live a normal life as compare to others (Diseases and Conditions of Obesity, 2015).

Emotional impact: The obese people are some time facing the depression because they are not able to the works as a normal person. They are also not able to take the actively participation in the various things. So these type of the thoughts bring them into depression level and sometime it leads to the metal stress. If this depression level increase than it will be a dementia diseases.

2.3 Interventions which can be used to control health threats in UK community

From the above discussion, it has been clear that obesity is a wider problem which is highly spread in UK community. It affects the health, social, emotional and economic impacts on society. It is required to the prevent the children and adults from the obesity which may helps in controlling the health threads in UK community. The following interventions are as follows (Mulrine, 2013).

Regular exercise: This is the most suitable way to prevent from the obesity. The people who has the overweight and who are living the normal life, they can go for regular walk about 30 to 40 minutes every day. This helps in prevent from gaining the extra weight (Obesity preventions sources, 2015).

Healthy meals and drink: People should follow the low calories, nutrition food and vegetables as well as whole grains. They should try to cut down those meals which have high fat and calories. Trying to eat slow and in small small portions in a whole day. This also prevent from the gaining the extra weight.
Monitor the weight regularly: People should go for monthly check up and weight themselves at least once in a week by monitoring the weight regularly, it helps in tracking losing the weight easily (Obesity preventions sources, 2015).

Organize the various programs and events: These are helps in brining the awareness in the people about the life and various health diseases. In these events, people can understand the importance of their life and health. The programs may be done by road show, school or college based programs, making an small documentary etc.


From the above report it can be concluded that obesity is a major problem which is find in UK community. This is due to overeating, consume fat and oily food, busy schedules, lack of physical exercise etc. This diseases are mostly find in children and adults and affects their health in a negative way. Public health actions are required to prevent from this problem and UK government makes various policies and practices for the preventions from obesity. In the UK community, to find the pattern of health and diseases, epidemiology method is used in finding the impact and effects of diseases in a particular area. The impact of obesity on community are health, emotional, social and economic effects. To stop this diseases in UK community, there are various interventions should be taken by the government and local and national agencies.


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  • Wonderlich, S., 2007. Key Topics in Healthcare Management: Understanding the Big Picture. Radcliffe Publishing.
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