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International Healthcare Policy

Impact of Culture and Society on Health Care

Introduction to International Healthcare Policy

In modern era, international healthcare policy plays a very important role in development of nations. Further such policies includes plans and strategies which are implemented in order to achieve healthcare goals. The present report includes various approaches to health care policy formation. In addition to this, it also highlights the influencing of funding on the entire process of policy formulation. This report reflects the impact of culture and society on health care. Some of the organizations which are involved in healthcare on national and international level are also described in this report.

Task 1

Impact of culture on healthcare

Culture plays a very important role in healthcare as it is the one which determines how the illness of a person is perceived and how care services are provided to him. The culture values sometimes becomes the base regarding how a patient will be treated in healthcare . It has been observed that all cultures have a particular set of health beliefs which have their won cause and cure of a illness. In many of the Asian culture, the oldest member of the family is the one who dominates and make decision for the entire family. Further In such kind of culture authority of person is respected by others and thus, disagreement with the things which has been recommended by any of the healthcare professional is generally avoided. In Indian and Pakistani culture people are do not easily gets ready for diagnosis as they perceives that it directly results in lowering down the chances of getting married for another family members. As per the Vietnamese culture, the physical and mental illness are linked with their religious belief. Therefore, it can be stated that different culture have different kind of impact on healthcare.

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Impact of society on healthcare

Another thing which has a direct impact on the healthcare is of society from which a person belongs. It can be stated that the educational level, family background are some of the important social factors which have a direct impact on healthcare. It has been also observed that mature and educated people are the one which prefer to use healthcare services even in case of very small problem. The literacy rate of a country determines the effectiveness and demand of healthcare services in a country. Less educated or illustrate people are the one which sometimes ignore serious illness and diseases also. UK is a developed country and the rate of literacy is also very high. Thus, there is a huge demand of healthcare services and people always seeks for getting quality and most accurate services. Due to this reason the healthcare organizations or the services providers are also required to ensure the fact the proper and effective services are provided to the patient.

Analyse the attitude to healthcare

Attitude towards healthcare is a very important factor of human personality. Some people believes that staying healthy and fit is one of the best way to live a long and happy life. On the other hand, some individual's are very careless about their health and this directly impact on their lives and results in making them ill. The concept of what is health and illness is one of the very important factor. It has been observed that some people prefer to use the services of healthcare only in serious situations. Further small illness are usually ignored which after sometimes becomes very serious. The attitude towards medical professional is also important part of an individual. Some people strictly follow the guidelines and instruction provided by the professionals to cure their illness. On the other hand, many of the people do not take medicines on time and their attitude is also very negative. The result of this is that such individual's ends up getting more ill.

Culture and social impact along with attitude towards healthcare in UK

In can be stated that UK is a developed nation and the culture and social factors are in favour of healthcare. Most of the population of the country is well educated and they also care about their health and well being. Even in situation of small injuries and illness people prefer to use the services of healthcare by consulting practitioners and doctors. The culture of UK encourages people to eat well and stay healthy. It has been found that some part of the entire population is not conscious with regards to their health and well being. The attitude of people is also very positive towards healthcare services. All the instructions which are given by doctors and practitioners are followed strictly by them.

Approaches to healthcare policies

There are various approaches to healthcare polices and some of them are mentioned below as:

National heath service

It is a healthcare system in England which is funded by public. Further NHS is also termed as one of the oldest as well as the largest healthcare system of the world. In every 36 hours, NHS England deals with over 1 million patient and covers everything from routine to antenatal screening. One of the core objectives of its policies is to meet the needs of everyone.

Private heath services

There are some of the private health care services in UK which forms their own set of rules and policies. Further the polices are much more focused on delivering quality care services.

Local organisation

These are the organization which operates at small level and have their own set of rules and policies.

Influence of funding on policy formation

It can be stated that funding has major impact on the policy formation of in national context. In addition to this, there are various funding model available and each of them has their own impact. It can be stated that funding has a direct impact on healthcare polices which are formed for the welfare of patient. NHS uses the model of public funding in which it raise funds from public. The results of this is that more effective policies are framed and they are also developed time to time. On the other hand, private funding may results in lowering down the effective of policy. One of the most common source of such findings is sponsorship and it has been observed that most of the time sponsors always try to save the money. Thus, it is can be stated that funding has a great impact on policy formation and one has to be very careful at the time of selecting sources of funding.

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Health care policy in UK

The health care policy of UK uses some general Practitioners, also termed as GP which provides private healthcare services. The policy aims at meeting the health and social care needs to people. Other than this, it also aim at being global leader in health care policy by developing some effective plans and policies. Research and development is one of the main part of UK's healthcare policy. The objective behind this is to create a culture that promote highest quality of care about everything. Culture and social values are also taken into consideration at the time of developing the same. Further, the issues and challenges are also analysed and the policies are developed according to the same. Health promotions are one of the most important part of policy in which awareness among health is developed among the people in country.

Turning healthcare policy into practices

The developed polices are converted into practises with the help of some organizations of healthcare which such as hospitals, general practitioner and other services providers. These are the one which takes care and ensure the fact that all the policies are practised in desired manner or not. All the polices are framed for these organizations only and thus, they are required to bring them into practise. These organizations works at local, national and regional level and implement the policies in order to provide the most effective healthcare services to patient. Further they are always encourage to discuss the issue and problem faces by them at the time of implementing the policy. The policy makers always stay in touch with the above stated organizations in order to effective turn the policy into practise.

International and national organizations involved in healthcare

Healthcare involved many international and national organizations which provides services to people. At international level Worlds health organization is (WHO) is among the major and most popular of them. It came into existence on 7th April 1948 and this day is now celebrated as worlds health day. Some of the main areas on which WHO works are development of health systems, promotion of health along with dealing with various kinds of communicable and non communicable diseases. The funds are main raised with the help of African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC). Further many of the government and non-government organization also contributes funds to WHO. In context to national organizations, The national health service (NHS) is very popular and oldest service provider. The mission of organization is to provide high quality of care services and make the life of people healthier. In terms of funding it can be stated that the organization raises major portion of its funds through charity.

Structure of healthcare system in UK

As per the system of healthcare in UK, the secretary of state for health is the one who is responsible for managing the department of health. Further it provides strategies to social care, NHS and public health. The funding of health and social care are also taken care of the department of health in UK. Other than this, it is ministerial department which is supported by 23 agencies along with some of the public bodies. The system consist of four major bodies which are NHS, clinical commissioning group, health and well being boards and public health England. NHS is the one which provides leadership and always seeks for improving the overall quality of care. Other than this, it also allocates resources to clinical commissioning group. The health and well being broad perform the main function of development and strengthen the relation between health and social care. On the other hand, clinical commissioning group is the one which which takes care of planned hospital care along with urgent and emergency care. At last there is a body called public Health England which coordinates and deliverer national health care services. In addition to this, it also support and seeks for the ways through which development of health workforce can be done.

Practical barriers to provision of healthcare in UK

There are various cultural and social barriers to provision of healthcare in UK. Culture and society differs from a person to another. Further these are the major factors which determines the access of healthcare services. The provision of healthcare are not defined by keeping the above mentioned factors in mind. It has been also found that the information which is provided by statutory institute including NHS is not adequate. Therefore, sometimes it become very difficult for services users to understand their diseases along with some precaution which are required to be taken in order to overcome the same. The inadequate healthcare provision can be termed as one of the major barriers. Many of the people also finds it very difficult to understand the language which is used by healthcare practitioners. This directly means that people are employed with very less knowledge regarding primary care services. Lack of knowledge also creates a situation where people start misusing medicines and it creates damages to their personal health. Thus, it can be stated that in order to improve overall quality and efficiency of healthcare in UK, the above mentioned barriers are required to be removed.

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Task 2

Impact on national and social political issue

The national and social political issue have a direct impact on health promotions. The attitudes to pharmaceutical companies is one of the important factor which determines the success of health promotions and campaign. Further whether these companies promote new drugs and their testing is also one of the major issues which has been faced at the time of health promotion. Other than this, politics also play a very important role in the success of such kind of practices. For e.g suppose if a new drug has been invented which can cure some serious illness but has some side effects which needs to be taken care of. Therefore, in such situation it is upon the political agenda in public health that whether to promote that drug or not.

The impact of international campaigns and national policies on the demand for healthcare

International campaign and national policies have a direct impact on on the demand for healthcare services. On one of the main objectives of international campaigns is to create more awareness among the minds of people. Further it also aims at educating people regrading the healthcare services available. The awareness directly results in increasing the demand of such health related services in country. This is the main reason why effective campaigning is carried out at international level. On the other hand, it has been also observed that national policies also affects the demand. Such polices are framed to meet the health related need of people in country. The objectives behind such policies is to ensure the fact that all people have access to quality health services and they can live longer. When better services are provided to individual's it creates more demand of services in market. On the other hand, it can be stated that poor health services results in lowering the demand of healthcare services and force people to use services of another nation.

Role of health promotion in determining healthcare service demand

Health promotion is defined as the process in which people are informed about the ways through which they can control their health and improve the same. It can be also stated that the concept of health promotion is developed on the basis of culture and social understanding of illness and health of people. One of the major component of health promotion is the education which is provided to people at the time of such promotions. Further it do not disclose some general information about healthcare services but how to prevent any kind of illness or disease. The promotions are also carried out in the form of various workshops and seminars. This creates more and more awareness among the people in society and encourage them to use healthcare services as and when they are required. The result of this is that more demand of healthcare services is created in nation as more and more people start using such services. It also helps in development of new health and social care services as per the growing demand in nation.

Issues in social and health care

One of the major contemporary issue which has been faced in the social and healthcare is health inequalities existing in UK. Health policy makers always try to encourage some of the minor groups which are not aware and using the services of healthcare. The gender and colour inequalities has emerged as one of the biggest challenge for healthcare. Other than this, it has been also observed that the development of knowledge is another issue which has been faced by healthcare practitioners. In past few years there has been many changes witnessed in professional boundaries and roles in healthcare. It is not easy to cope up and adopt such kind of changes and it has become very challenging. It is also difficult to have a continuous improvement in overall quality of services. Along with the changing technology, healthcare service providers are required to up-grade themselves and it is not possible to adopt changing technology at a very fast pace. The development of health initiatives has also emerged a issue for those which provides health related services.

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Impact of issue on national and international policy

National and international policy of healthcare directly gets affected by the issues and challenges. It has been found that the cost get increased as service providers are required to adopt new technology. It directly lower down the effectiveness of the policy and makes it very difficult for the policy makers. There has been many changes occurred in professional boundaries and sometimes services providers are required to go beyond their roles to provide healthcare services. The inequalities results in lowering down the demand of services and the policy makers need to invest lots of time and efforts to frame such policy which can encourage people in minority group to use such kind of services. The issues and challenges faced by social and healthcare not not impact policy development but also affects its implementation. The issues make it more difficult for care service providers to implement the policy framed at national and international level.

Practical response to issues in health and social care

It is required by the service providers of health and social care to overcome the issues and challenges faces. It has been identified that the issues directly affects the effectiveness of policy and the demand of services. More and more health promotion can be done so that the health inequalities existing in UK can be eliminated. Further such kind of step will help in targeting the minor groups which do not use the services of health and social care. At the time of policy formation gender dis-equalities should be completely avoided. The policies should focus on providing the best and most effective health care services to a patient irrespective of gender and colour. The practitioner and services providers should be provided with training sessions so that they can adapt new technologies, stay up-graded and easily cope with the change. The polices should be developed by considering the changes in professional roles and boundaries.

Conclusion

From the above report it can be concluded that international healthcare policy play a major role in determining the health and well being for a person. It can be also stated that funding has a direct impact on the effectiveness of policies. Other than this, it also gets affected by the social and cultural factors. It can be concluded there are various healthcare organizations which work on international, national and regional level to take of health of people arround them.

References

  • Asch, S. M. and et. al., 2006. Who is at greatest risk for receiving poor-quality health care?.New England Journal of Medicine. 354(11).
  • Beach, M. C. and et. al., 2005. Cultural competency: A systematic review of health care provider educational interventions. Medical care.
  • Berkman, N. D. and et. al., 2011. Low health literacy and health outcomes: an updated systematic review.Annals of internal medicine.
  • Brennan, T. A. and et. al., 2006. Health industry practices that create conflicts of interest: a policy proposal for academic medical centers. Jama.
  • Edwards, A. and Elwyn, G. 2009. Shared decision-making in health care: Achieving evidence-based patient choice. Oxford University Press.
 

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