Management Of Change
A sample Report on Change Management
Globalisation and continuous innovation in technology has led to constantly evolving business environment. Introduction of social media sites and adaptability to mobile have revolutionised businesses and the impact of this is an ever growing requirement for change and so for management of change as well. Management of change refers to an approach to transition individuals, teams and organisation through making use of methods intended to redirect the utilisation of resources, business processes, budget allocations, or other models of operations which significantly reshape a firm. Change management focuses on the way in which people and teams are influenced by a transition in organisation. It deals with various disciplines from behavioural and social sciences to information technology and business solutions.
According to Mar, (2013) resistance to change is unavoidable as change itself. Resistance to organisational change proves to be successful many a times. Individuals find out creative ideas to resist when they are motivated. Resistance can be direct, indirect, open or secretive. It often fails if half of the people in an organisation resist to change. Management of change identifies, understands and lessens its resistance With reference to this, it is essential to understand the fundamental motivation behind resistance. Resistance towards change can be instinctual, emotional or logical. Change resists because individuals tend to prefer stability to change. In terms of social psychology, it is referred as status quo bias. Many a times, people will accept a low pay-scale so that they can work in a stable atmosphere which rarely changes. For instance, government and well known conservative institutions like universities have high price for those who want stable environment. Change management anticipates and make planning for resistance to change. The other reason behind this is the fear, uncertainty and doubts. As per the views of Thompson, and Martin, (2010) change can trigger intense feelings and deep rooted fears in an individual. This is seated in the uncertainty and doubts that resists change. Uncertainty causes imaginations to go wild. A very small uncertainty can create an imagination in the individual to imagine stressful situations like loss of job or threats. Change management focuses on decreasing the uncertainty surrounding change.
Cameron and Green, (2015) stated that politics is also a reason due to which people resist to change because they think it as emerging with a political enemy. Organisation which has a charged political culture prefer to experience higher resistance to change. Management of change tries to create a culture of collaboration and reduction in political obstacles to change. Along with this, logic is also an essential reason in resistance to change. Individuals do not agree with the logic of change itself. For instance, they may have options to the change which they think are better. Change management lays emphasis on consultation at the initial phase of change. There are less chances of resistance to change if stakeholders feel that they have been consulted. Cole-Lewis and Kershaw, (2010) argued that employees who have painful experiences or failures may have a negative attitude towards change. Bad experience makes individuals avoid change which is also a reason for the resistance to change. Change management tries to impart confidence in it. If individuals possess high level of confidence, then introduction of change will be successful and reduces possibilities to resist it. Another reason behind resistance to change is that employees who work for hard and for longer period may resist to take extra responsibilities related with the change. Change management seeks a sustainable approach for working which neglects overloading of resources. Those individual who are not overloaded with their work, less chances are there to resist changes which needs their focus and contribution.
Fee, (2014) asserted that one of the central concepts in social science in general as well as organisational and management theory is Power. It is in the core of all social relationships. In other words, it is an essential component of social life which involves groups or individuals within organisation. Power and resistance has been theorised as a defining characteristic on organisations. Power resistance relationship has a view of organisation as political sites of contestation in which various stakeholder’s groups compete for resources. According to Free and et. al., (2013) there are six sources of power. One is physical power which can be found more often than expected in organisations. Some individuals can be physically daunting, highly vocal or just tough to handle with. Second is position power which comes from a position usually in hierarchy of organisation i.e. the job title. A manager may have given his precious years to reach on a particular position. This is the power to control individuals by orders, rules, regulations and procedures. Third is reward power, which is the capability to provide rewards for job that are performed well. Next is referent which is the power that a person gets by being linked with another person. Another source is expert power which refers to power gaining from some unique and historic and valuable knowledge or expertise.
Morgan, (2013) stated that when implementation of change is to be done, power driven resistance should be kept out because this will surely make a negative impact on the initiative of change. Managers who are afraid of loss of power are generally in position to influence and can easily interrupt the action plan which is implemented. Managers take over change programmes or projects and suggest alternative strategies to undermine the plans. Managing power driven resistance to change needs tactics and a good understanding of stakeholders. Therefore, time should be spent on learning about the influence of stakeholders and should be assured that support is built with stakeholders.
As per the views of Molderink and et. al., (2010) managerial ethics is a combination of principles and rules dictated by top management which define about what is right and what is wrong in an organisation. When a conflict of values emerges, it guides and helps to direct lower manager's decision making in the scope of his or her job. A complicated workplace can be transformed into a less complex one when there are some ground rules. Firms which follow a set of managerial ethics or guidelines make a clear path for managers to perform effectively during difficult decision making conditions. Making managerial code of conduct needs some general information such as what are ethics? Ethics are moral codes which regulate the behaviour of a person or group of people regarding what is right or what is wrong. Easterby-Smith Thorpe, and Jackson, (2012) asserted that these moral codes are surrounded around established values and principles and vary from culture to culture. They point a path to a specific course of action defining acceptable behaviours and choices. Set of standards which govern the conduct of a manager functioning within a workplace are called as managerial ethics. No legal rules or laws are present which are directed particularly for managers. In fact, a code of ethics is accumulated by a firm to guide the managers. This code of conduct generally refers shared values, principles and organisational policies regarding basic conduct and outlines the duties a manager has towards his employees.
Pohl, (2010) said that managerial ethics generally has two separate areas. One is principle based ethics which states that what is fair and just in the scope of workplace and it consists of information about departmental boundaries or utilisation of firm equipment. Another is policy based managerial conflicts. They refer to conflicts of interest, the correct reaction to gifts from vendors or business partners or the dealing of proprietary information. When a conflict of values emerges in an organisation, then the need to refer managerial ethics arises. Enron is a good example of violation of managerial ethics. However, it was not illegal for the executive managers of Enron to encourage employees to buy shares of company’s stock. They were aware that it would drop in value once the financial crisis of the company reveals. However, it was a clear violation of ethical standards. The executive managers violated managerial ethics concerned about their own interests. Kingsford, (2011) argued that managerial ethics help to assist decision making and in controlling inner and outer behaviour. Ethical dilemmas usually take place from a conflict between an individual or group and the firm, unit or whole department. Firms who have set of values and norms which are followed by the managers and are regularly adopted during the work day, have built an ethical platform through which managers can perform and take decisions. Stage for ethical behaviour can be set by a training manager from the specifics of managerial ethics by role play, case study and group discussion.
According to Hayes, (2014) managers are on the positions of authority which makes them responsible and liable for ethical conduct of those people who report to him. They fulfil these responsibilities by assuring that employees are well aware of ethical code of conduct of the organisation and have the chance to ask questions to clear their understanding. They also supervise behaviour of employees according to the expectations of organisation regarding appropriate behaviour. To decrease the influence of suspected ethical violations they have duty to speedily and properly respond. Fordham and et. al., (2013) stated that for achieving an effective change management programme, managers have to play five roles. Firstly, he has to become communicator about change. Employees want to hear messages about change as to how to do their work and how their team will be impacted by change from the person they report to. The manager is a key to information about organisation. Secondly, he has to be advocate for the change. He is required to show his support in active and observable methods. Then, he has to be coach his employees which involves helping them throughout the process of change. Also the managers acts a liaison between the employees and the project team, by giving information from project team to his employees. And lastly, the most important role is of resistance manager. They are the best suitable person to effectively manage resistance when it takes place.
Mackenzie, (2011) asserted that for successful implementation of change initiatives, need for change must be identified and communicated throughout the organisation. People at all levels of the organisation must be involved in designing implementation strategy. Those people who are most influenced by the change and its implementation should be actively involved. This will help to assure that employees at all levels of organisation embrace the suggested changes. Change in new structures, policies, objectives, disposals, acquisitions etc. all of these forms a new system and environment which is required to be explained to employees as soon as possible, so that their engagement in implementing changes can be attained. Whenever an organisation introduces new things on employees then they face hardships and hurdles. But employee participation and involvement along with open, quick and smooth communication are important factors. Hanak, and Lund, (2012) argued that Management is required to tell an inspirational change story which inspires the employees. Employees need to feel the problem because they are not going to take it seriously and sincerely until they are convinced that there is a problem which needs to be resolved. The techniques and tools for driving organisational change can be workshops-they are useful processes to develop collective understanding, approaches, methods, ideas etc. Story telling can also be an effective tool.
The present study is based upon management of change which discussed about reasons of resistance to change in an organisation and also, it stated the details about why it is problematic to manage resistance to change. A critical view of relationship between power and resistance to organisational change is mentioned in the report. Along with this, ethics of managerial and resistant positions are also being evaluated which states that ethics of managers and resistant positions like employees play an essential role in introducing changes in the organisation. Further, it has been analysed that managerial and resistant positions have significant implications in the achievement of change management programme.
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