Marketing Techinques to Improve Online Business
Effectivce Strategy to Promote Business Sales
Today’s business scenario generally focuses on different marketing strategies for attaining different targets. On other hand all those organizations which are following mouth publicity for marketing purpose they cannot achieve their targets. So, marketing of the products and services is a very important task and operation to survive in fashion industry (Fiegen, 2010). There are various established organizations which do not focus on promotion of their products and services because they have strong on their customers by their brand image. But still they use different marketing campaign for their new launch and for increasing their products and services. For example, Marks and Spencer is still using various important marketing strategies to increase their performance in front of their competitors, Tesco and Sainsbury (Scullin, Fjermestad and Romano, 2004).
On other hand various other organizations only focuses on the online marketing for advertising their existing and new products and services. Recently every customer does not use mobile and internet facilities so they are not able to do shopping by online stores of the organization. So, still in various countries mobile marketing and online advertising are not working very effectively. However, the current research focuses on the population or customers of the United Kingdom which is very developed country. At this place every customer uses mobile phones and latest technologies (Randall, 1997).
So, in this study researcher will find out the expectation and requirements of customers behind the marketing of products and services of fashion industry. Along with this it would help in identifying the effectiveness of mobile marketing for customers. In this regards literature review will help in analysing the acceptance of technologies by customers. It will provide the information regarding the online shopping of fashionable products and services by customers (McDonald and Wilson, 1999).
For conducting the whole investigation researcher has been choosing the New Look organization of fashion industry of United Kingdom. It is the UK’s largest retailer of fashion cloths and accessories for women (Meng, 2010). It targets women customers of fashion industry and follows age segmentation strategy for segmenting the whole market. It is producing their products for women under 39. New look have over 1100 stores in all around the world and have 126 franchise business stores in 20 market. It uses the latest technologies for marketing purpose as well as it has approx two million likes on face book. They are testing latest technologies for attracting and encouraging more customers. At the time of collaboration with Kelly Brook and development of colour cosmetics, they initiated interactive mobile application for smart phone users (Hasan, 2011). By which their customers can access the rich content about latest trends, products and services of company.
Mobile marketing is recent approach of fashion organizations so there is not so much research has been conducting by the other research scholars. On other hand it is very low cost option for advertising and marketing of products of the company so researcher wants to analysis it effectiveness (Iqbal and El-Gohary, 2014). New look is also one of those organization which are selling their products online so it is necessary for them to advertise their products also online. Major research issue is that organization is investing large amount of money in mobile marketing so researcher wants to analysis that weather it is really effective or not. Further, study evaluates that through the mobile marketing, company can convenience their customers for buying clothes and accessories with trying and seeing them (Kucuk, 2011).
It is the major challenge for the research because as per the traditional marketing strategies online advertising can reduce the sales and income of the company. But, on other hand statistical data shows that company can earn high income from online selling of clothes and accessories (Hooda and Aggarwal, 2012).
It is the issue now because statistical data of online selling of various organizations shows that customers are taking more interest in online shopping as compare to physical. But, in this shopping they are attracting through the electronics and other items. So, at present analysis of impact and effectiveness of mobile marketing on fashion industry or New Look organization is necessary (Strauss, Ansary and Frost, 2006).
For resolving this issue researcher will focus on various ways of mobile marketing and effectiveness of it on organization’s success. Further research will shed light on the privacy and fraud issues associated with mobile marketing. Thus, the whole study will provide help in developing effective marketing strategies for online and offline advertising (Kucuk, 2011).
‘Marketing on mobile devices and mobile applications, an analysis of its effectiveness in the Fashion industry’ is major aim of the research.
The major objectives of the research are as follows:
As per the research aim and objectives appropriate research questions are as under:
1.How fashion organizations promote their products to consumers as they do not have any offline advertisement?
2.Want are the major effectiveness of mobile marketing and advertising?
3.Do customers really get affected by the marketing through mobile application? And how?
4.What are the most privacy and fraud issues involved in shopping online?
5.What consumers think of mobile marketing and how effective is it.
In order to attain the objectives of the study researcher will focus on the marketing activities of the New look organization. Along with this study will shed light on various positive and negative impact of online advertisement on customers of the fashion market. Research also spotlight on the technology acceptance model and customer’s buying behaviour towards fashionable clothes and accessories (Taylor and Strutton, 2010). In addition investigator will focus on different advantages of the mobile marketing for consumers and New Look organization. In addition focus will also be given on different security and fraud issues relevant to the online shopping of cloths and accessories. Study spotlights on the consumer’s thinking behind the physical and online marketing activities of the organization (Benefits of SMS Marketing for Fashion Industry, 2014).
As per the above discussion research will give major focus on different aspects of mobile marketing behind the various other objectives. Major purpose of the research is analysing the importance and advantages of the mobile marketing of New Look fashion organization. Purposes of the study also include the evaluation of expansion rate of the business by online selling and mobile marketing (Scullin, Fjermestad and Romano, 2004). As per the above discussed objectives study is conducting with the purpose of finding out that how fashion industry promote or market their clothes and accessories to their customers as they do not use any physical and offline marketing. Therefore, analysing the effectiveness of mobile marketing and advertising is the major purpose of the current research project (Danesi, 2006).
An appropriate and structured research is very important for attaining all objective very effectively. So, researcher will be following a particular chapter structure for analyzing and accomplishing the whole investigation on mobile marketing and advertising. A standard format of this research is describing below:
Chapter 1: Introduction – It the major segment of the research which will give the information about the background of the study and research. It will include overview of the fashion industry and current subject of investigation. It will describe the research issue associated with the mobile marketing and advertisement of New Look organization. In addition introduction chapter of research study will also comprise the aim and objectives of researcher as well as focus and purpose of investigation (Dey, 2002). In order to attain these objectives researcher will make some question for simplify the whole explore. Towards the end current section will contain a complete chapter structure, framework and analysis and research methodology for accomplishing the whole investigation on effectiveness of mobile marketing and advertising for New Look organization (Kumar, 2014).
Chapter 2: Literature Review – It is the heart of the current research which will provide an insight for conducting the whole research in a very effective manner. It will contain the historical studies of other researcher on the relevant topics of the mobile marketing and its impact on the expansion and other performance of the business organization. The research will analyze the acceptance of the mobile marketing by consumers by the technology acceptance model. Along with this through the reasoned action and planned behavior theory the current study will inspect the buying behavior of customer towards the online shopping of clothes and accessories of New Look organization. In addition different models and theories will be included by researcher which will provide a clear imminent for obtaining facts about the online marketing and advertising of New Look.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology – By this segment researcher will conduct the whole investigation on the current subject. It will comprise different tool and techniques for analyzing the facts and information as well as determining the actual findings and conclusion. This segment will include research approach, technique, data collection methods, sampling, analyzing and ethical consideration of the investigation.
Chapter 4: Data Analysis and Findings – For analyzing the collected data and facts through the various data collection instruments researcher will use appropriate techniques for analyzing primary and secondary information. For examining effectiveness of the mobile marketing for New look organization researcher will use qualitative and quantitative research techniques.
Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations – The current chapter of study will make a meaningful conclusion as per the findings of data analysis section. Along with this for improving the mobile marketing and other advertising strategies researcher will suggest some recommendation which help in advancing marketing strategies of New Look organization for their customers.
Framework and analysis include whole research methodology which comprises different tools and techniques of investigation on effectiveness of mobile marketing for New Look organization (Bhattacharyya, 2009). It will provide help in developing a valid conclusion which provides the information that in actual mobile marketing works to attract and encourage customers for purchase cloths and accessories of New Look organization. Different sections of complete framework and analysis is as follows:
Research design: It is a blue print of the whole research which provides an appropriate way for determining the effectiveness of mobile marketing for New Look organization. Researcher will use Explanatory or Exploratory research design (Daniel and Sam, 2011). It is based on the primary information which is essential for carried out this investigation. It will help in determining actual importance of online stores and mobile marketing of the New Look organization of fashion industry. Along with this it will provide some facts about the suitable investment in mobile marketing.
Research approach: Historical research is very less on this subject so researcher needs to develop a new theory by conducting the whole investigation. So, inductive approach will be appropriate for examining the different aspects of online marketing of fashion organization (Cassell and Symon, 2006). Inductive approach will review the historical studies relevant to the latest technologies of marketing and then considers their outcomes for resolving the research problem.
Philosophy of research: Combined attitude will be more suitable for attaining framed objectives of study. For carries out the quantitative analysis researcher needs to follow all elements of positivism and interpretevism. It will help in understanding different challenges associated with the mobile advertisement which can affect the different marketing operation of the New Look organization (Fiegen, 2010).
Techniques of investigation: the whole research will focus on the response of different participants of the selected sample. So it will be based on the primary and secondary information which will have collected by researcher during their investigation. For analysing these facts researcher will use qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Qualitative research will help in considerate the personal interview of the different respondents of New Look organization (Flick, 2011). Response sheet of respondents will include the large number of data for evaluating those information researcher needs to use quantitative research techniques.
Data collection methods: Data collection is the most important step for resolving the research problem in an appropriate way because it will help in obtaining required information to different customers of the organization. The whole study will be based on the primary and secondary information. Primary facts will be collected by researcher with the help of questionnaire, personal interview and online survey of different customers of the New Look organization (Fiegen, 2010).
Secondary data will also be utilized by researcher for getting new insights from historical research studies on the mobile marketing and fashion industry. Research articles, journals, books, websites and past literature will be major instruments for collecting the secondary data regarding online stores, marketing strategy and effectiveness of mobile marketing for New Look organization (Goddard and Melville, 2004).
Sampling techniques: As per the above discussion researcher will use primary information so, for obtaining these facts research needs to select an appropriate sample of distinct respondents. Customers of New Look organization which must use online shopping facilities of this organization can be included by researcher for further study. There is different probability and non probability sampling techniques but fir current study researcher needs to use the random non probability sampling method (Cassell and Symon, 2006). Because, in this technique there is no specific restriction and criteria for approaching people. Researcher will select 100 customers by using the random numbers. There will not be any biasness in selecting sample from large population. Each sample unit can participate in the research by providing their thoughts by questions of questionnaire (Bhattacharyya, 2009).
Data analysis: Quantitative and qualitative both research techniques will be used by researcher for getting facts about the effectiveness of mobile marketing for New Look organization. So for analysing these facts researcher will exercise thematic and statistical methods. Thematic analysis will help in understanding the behaviour of different customers. It will examine the collected data by the use of different charts, figures, diagrams and graphs etc. Thus, it will helps in analysing the qualitative information (Kumar, 2014). On other hand for analysing the quantitative data researcher will use the statistical analysis. It includes various numerical figures and calculation for machining an appropriate conclusion. Therefore, by the use of thematic and statistical methods research will analyse collected facts regarding the effectiveness of mobile marketingfor New Look organization (Sterne, 2010).
New Look organization is a leading company of fashion industry of United Kingdom and it is using mobile advertising as core marketing strategy of the organization. So, this association and its customers who use smart phones and mobile devices to check the advertisement and latest trends of cloths and accessories of the company are the major subject of the research (Scullin, Fjermestad and Romano, 2004). Major objectives of the literature review are assessing the buying behavior of those consumers who purchase different fashion products from online websites of the New Look. Various models and theories are also added regarding this purpose.
In the modern business scenario, numerous fashion organizations use online marketing instead of other marketing tools. It can be defined as a type of marketing and advertising which uses the internet to promote their products and services to their customers (Sterne, 2010). There are different types of marketing techniques; these are email, social networking, search engine and mobile marketing and advertising, etc. Similarly as per the Danesi, 2006 “major types of the mobile marketing are SMS, MMS, push notification, mobile applications, in game, web based, proximity, coupons, QR codes, Bluetooth, location based , etc” (Danesi, 2006).
Recently mobile marketing is very famous for fashion industry and it requires advance technologies. It is becoming a success factor for those organizations which are not using physical advertising and marketing. At present, because of the advance mobile devices which provide high connectivity with the customers, mobile marketing is going beyond the other e-marketing techniques (Muniz, Albert and O'Guinn, 2001). It means that for the New Look organization, mobile marketing is very helpful because it provides better profitability and benefits to organization as compare to the entrepreneurs. Along with this, it gives more benefits to consumers, such as less cost, high customization of cloths and accessories, easy tracking of orders, etc. But on other hand, as per the other marketing strategy, it also has ups and downs. So, different challenges, advantages and disadvantages of mobile marketing for New Look organization are also described in the upcoming paragraphs of the report (Herrmann-Fichtenau and Schuster-Hofstätter, 1998).
According to the research study of Leggatt, 2013 which states that “fashion industry has got grip and high success with mobile and tablet marketing” (Leggatt, 2013). It means mobile marketing also plays an important role in performance of New Look organization. After the use of mobile marketing, company is over performing as compared previous years. Randall, 1997 states that “Largest retailers of the United Kingdom have invested largely on mobile marketing and different application for advertising their products and services” (Randall, 1997). Along with this, there are different measures of the mobile marketing such as optimization of websites and apps and search campaign by number of customers. In store, Wi-Fi and regular use of internet shows that use of mobile phones is increasing day by day so fashion organization can improve their performance by the exercising mobile marketing. In addition, lots of consumers are deciding to shop from online store so they also check all information via websites (McDonald and Wilson, 1999). So, mobile marketing increases the online shopping of the different fashion organizations. However, for adopting this strategy, organization requires effective marketing planning and implementation which takes so much time. Similarly, at the time of starting mobile marketing, organization needs to investment high amount in development of websites and applications. All these things affect the total income and cost of different cloths and accessories of the New Look organization (Hasan, 2011).
Technology acceptance model is the best way for determining the effectiveness of mobile marketing and advertisement for New Look organization.
TAM has been developed by Davis which is based on rapid advancement in technologies and acceptance of it. It can be described in the form of a flow chart which provides facts that how individual responds to the technology advancement and what is the acceptance level towards the new technology (Economic aspects of mobility and identity, 2014). It is based on the theory of reasoned action and planned behavior of different consumers. Along with this, it provides the information regarding impact of external variables on attitude, behavior and actual buying intention of customers. As pre the TAM, there are two external factors which can affect the buying behavior of customers (Iqbal and El-Gohary, 2014). These are perceived usefulness and easy to use technology. Perceived usefulness means degree of utility by which customers suppose that this new technology will be helpful for them in their different functions. On other hand, perceived ease to use means the extent of technology which makes it user friendly. Thus, by focusing on these two factors, organization can determine the acceptance level of new technologies by their customers (Kucuk, 2011).
As per the TAM, mobile marketing for fashion industry also becomes very effective because it includes both factors. These are; customers of the company can use their mobile phones very easily and it is very user friendly for them. So, by the use of mobile application, SMS, MMS, and emails, New Look can spread the information about their clothes and accessories to all customers and they can easily assess the all information regarding the products and services of company by their smart phones (El-Gohary, 2010). On other hand, another factor perceived of usefulness is also available for this marketing strategy. It is useful for online consumers because its cost is very low and instant communication source for them. Thus, as per the technology acceptance model, mobile advertisement will be acceptable by the customers of Fashion industry as well as New Look organization (Taylor and Strutton, 2010).
Tanzi, 2012, stated a contrary view that “theory of TAM only focuses on some computer users without including each and every technology user” (Tanzi, 2012). Similarly, Iqbal and El-Gohary, 2014 raised the issue that “TAM has very limited explanatory value and forecasting power towards the consumers behavior and it does not have practical value” (Iqbal and El-Gohary, 2014). Thus, technology acceptance model has positive and negative views by different researchers.
Analysis of the buying behaviour is the major part of this study, so researcher has also assessed the theory of reasons reasoned action and planned behaviour. These theories provide the basis for examining the buying behaviour of the online customers of the New Look organization. Along with this, decision making model will also be reviewed by researcher in further investigation of current subject (Kucuk, 2011).
As per the evaluation of the different studies which states that reasoned action model considers the intention of the customers. Considering this, it represents the buying process of customers with customer’s intentions towards the products and services of the company. On other hand, theory of planned behaviour is very different from the theory of reasoned action. It states that influences of buying process of the customers are also considered as behaviour of consumers (Tanzi, 2012). For example: An individual buys the clothes and accessories from the online website of New Look fashion organization because one of the friend and family friend also purchase those products from the same online store. Theory of planned behaviour also considers the behaviour of consumer during the repeat purchase process. It makes a link between customer’s behaviour and their loyalty towards the organization (Hooda and Aggarwal, 2012).
Therefore, these theories are relevant to research on effectiveness of mobile marketing of the New Look organization. It is used for analysing buying behaviour and process of customer towards online stores of selected organization. Through these theories, study can analyses different aspects of online marketing (Meng, 2010).
For analyzing the customers’ perception towards the online marketing, study needs to apply the decision making model of the customers. It has defined by the Kollat and et al since 1986. This model includes five stage process of decision making at the time of purchase of products and services. As per the view of Kumar, 2014, which shows that “Decision making model is used to determine the different stages of consumers for buying and repurchase decision” (Kumar, 2014).
According to Sterne, 2010 “Five stages of this model are need assessment, research for need satisfaction, evaluation of different alternatives, and decision for final purchase of product and services and post purchase services of the company” (Sterne, 2010). Danesi, 2006 states that “it is very helpful tool for buying a products and services as well as evaluating the buying process of customers” (Danesi, 2006). However, with different advantages, this model also has some limitations. Critical review shows that “each person does not follow all stages of the decision making model for taking a final decision regarding purchase of products and services”. For example, due to mobile marketing customer gets attracted towards the products of it even he/she do not have any need of particular product. So, at this situation, customers follow all the stages after the needs assessment. Thus, for analyzing the decision making process of their online customers New Look organization can use the decision making model (Muniz, Albert and O'Guinn, 2001).
At the time of starting of business, any online organization may operate their operation as a small brand but later through the effective mobile marketing, organization may become large scale brand. So, for analyzing the effectiveness of the mobile marketing for expansion of the business at brand level, study comprises different brand related theories. These theories are brand personality model and brand equity model (McDonald and Wilson, 1999). These models are applicable for online New Look fashion organization and its mobile advertisement.
As per the brand equity model New Look organization needs to build their brand as per the customer thinking and feelings towards its products and services. If, company considers the consumer’s expectations and provides a best experience by cloths and accessories of its brand, then customers have specific, positive thoughts, feelings, beliefs, opinions and perception about it (Hasan, 2011). It will enhance the brand equity of the company then enhances the overall sales of the organization. Thus, through the mobile marketing organization can consider the different dimensions of customer expectations which lead the high brand equity in mind of online consumers that augments the final performance of the New Look organization in terms of high sales and income (Kucuk, 2011).
New Look fashion organization targets those women who are under thirty nine. In the recent business scenario of United Kingdom this segment is using the highest smart phones for their online dealing and other purpose. Meng, 2010 states that “in the fashion industry an organization can use mobile marketing for advertising their products and services to target customers” (Meng, 2010). It means New Look organization uses advertising through mobiles for increasing the awareness about their clothes and accessories for their target women customers. On other hand Tanzi, 2012 concluded that “Leading fashion organizations of UK adopt wireless marketing strategy for promoting their brands in the entire fashion market” (Tanzi, 2012). Review of various historical studies shows different research scholars’ state distinct views on use of mobile marketing by fashion industry. Such as, Zhadanova, 2014 asserted that “Fashion industry uses this marketing strategy for getting instant result as well as instant impact on customers” (Zhadanova, 2014). Customer can see the promotions of the New Look organization instantly because users generally carry their mobile phones with them. It influences buying behavior of customer towards the purchase of cloths and accessories on immediate basis before the stock out on online retail stores. Thus, Mobile marketing enhances the revenue and income of New Look organization because of the instant result and impact.
Similarly, the study of Tang, 2013 concluded that “Fashion organizations exercise mobile advertisement for direct marketing and personalized interaction with customers which provides an effective communication” (Tang, 2013). Thus, for developing a strong communication with online consumers, New Look organization uses this marketing strategy which leads the high peak of online sales. On other hand Loya, 2013 provides their view towards the mobile marketing and fashion industry which is that “mass communication and marketing is very essential for those fashion organizations which are using the online store for sailing theory products and services, so, mobile marketing is the best option for this purpose” (Loya, 2013). Tang, 2013 provided their views that “for enhancing the business operation in the field of online retaining and attaining the competitive advantages, organization should develop effective customer relationship management, mobile marketing is helpful tool regarding this purpose” (Tang, 2013). It means that New Look organization is using this marketing strategy for producing an effective and strong customer relationship with customers of the company. This strategy provides a cost leadership and different other competitive advantages to the company that help in future expansion of the business in all over the globe. On other hand Tanzi, 2012 states that “Mobile marketing is used by companies for getting immediate feedbacks form customers for their products as well as for target a specific market” (Tanzi, 2012). Thus, review of the different past studies shows that organization uses mobile marketing and advertisement for different purpose.
New Look organization is an online fashion retailing company which provides various benefits to it in different forms. As per the Kucuk, 2011 “Mobile marketing is a very effective source of direct marketing and personalized interaction with customers of the New Look organization” (Kucuk, 2011). In enhances the knowledge and awareness of cloths and accessories of company in the mind of customers which leads to high sales and revenue. Similarly, Hooda and Aggarwal, 2012 states that “Fashion organization can target mass population for target marketing which increases the communication among customers and company” (Hooda and Aggarwal, 2012). On other hand Meng, 2010 concluded that “Mobile marketing is the best cost effective strategy for organization which reduces the overall costs of cloths and accessories that leads the high demand and sales of products” (Meng, 2010). In the present scenario, people love the fashion and technology, so, mobile marketing will be very effective for fashion industry or New Look organization. In the busy schedules, timesaving is the most objective of mobile shopping specially for business class and high status customers. Similarly, as per the complete survey 82.9% of high status online stores of fashion industry spent their whole time in selling fashion products and services to customers by using different mobile applications. On other hand, critical evaluation of El-Gohary, 2010 shows different effectiveness of mobile marketing such as “Mobile marketing provides the complete geographical information to customer by which they can purchase fashionable cloths, accessories, footwear and other products from all online stores of over the world” (El-Gohary, 2010).
Study of Taylor and Strutton, 2010 concluded that “By the use of mobile marketing, different advertisement and messages can be customized as per the attraction, needs and expectations of customers” (Taylor and Strutton, 2010). It means advertising by mobile marketing is effective for New Look organization because by the use of it, company can personalize their information about their products and services as per the customer’s requirements. Similarly, Muniz, Albert and O'Guinn, 2001 asserted some more advantages of mobile marketing which is that “it is very cost effective for managers of the fashion organization because by the use of SMS and different massaging apps they can spread their information to wide range without investing high amount of money” (Muniz, Albert and O'Guinn, 2001).
Therefore, for this organization this marketing strategy is effective because it does not require high amount of funds as compare to physical marketing. On other hand, Herrmann-Fichtenau and Schuster-Hofstätter, 1998 states their different view towards mobile marketing which is that “geographical location doesn’t matter in mobile marketing because each customer has their own mobile phones” (Herrmann-Fichtenau and Schuster-Hofstätter, 1998). However, in the physical marketing such as posters, displays and bill boards need to consider the location but, location of customer does not have any impact on the marketing strategy of New Look organization. One another author also compares the mobile marketing with email and television marketing. In this comparison Randall, 1997 states that “various business class customers do not have time to see television and advertisement may be ignored by them but in case of mobile marketing organization can get direct communication and touch with customers” (Randall, 1997). Thus, the fashion organization can improve the direct marketing of clothes and accessories to customers. But this statement is also criticized by the Strauss, Ansary and Frost, 2006 that “error in delivery of SMS and information to customers on time can decline the overall online market share of the company” (Strauss, Ansary and Frost, 2006). So, for enjoying benefits of mobile marketing, New Look organization must be sure that all customers have received all development information on time (Benefits of SMS Marketing for Fashion Industry, 2014). Zhadanova, 2014 states in their article that “Through the mobile marketing, customers can get their discount coupons when they need them” (Zhadanova, 2014). Thus, effectiveness of mobile marketing is not bound with the New Look organization it offers various benefits to customers also.
Therefore, mobile marketing is very effective for New Look organization as well as customers of the company. It provides a speedy conversation as well as provides lots of information to customers about the new trends and development of the products and services of the company (Flick, 2011). Along with this, it is less expensive as compared to other marketing campaigns of the organization for attracting large numbers of customers. In addition, advertisement through mobile cannot be affected by the location of customers. Through this, organization can increase the communication speed with different customers. Mass population can be covered by this (Kumar, 2014). So, all these benefits of mobile marketing can improve the overall performance of New Look organization which proves the effectiveness of mobile marketing in business operations (Sterne, 2010).
As per the above discussion, researcher wants to analyze the impact of mobile marketing on customers of New Look organization. For attaining this objective, researcher has reviewed different past studies which show that different authors have different views towards it. Along with this, researcher also needs to determine the impact of mobile marketing on attitudes and purchase intention of customers. Mobile marketing has positive and negative impact on customer’s attitudes. As per the Consumer Attitudes toward Mobile Advertising, 2010 that “If, by the mobile marketing, organization targets the actual needs of the customers then it has a positive impact on the customer’s attitude and purchase behavior” (Consumer Attitudes toward Mobile Advertising, 2010). Thus, if in the mobile marketing, New Look organization considers the different needs and requirements of the customers then it will increase the number of customers. But on other hand, if this type of marketing is not based on the customer’s data, attitudes, needs and expectations then it will have a negative impact on brand image in the customer’s mind as well as performance of the company. In the same way, The Effects of
Positive and Negative Online Customer Reviews: Do Brand Strength and Category Maturity Matter, 2013 has provided their statement that “for positive impact on customers mobile marketing should be based on the services rather than selling of the fashion organization” (The Effects of Positive and Negative Online Customer Reviews: Do Brand Strength and Category Maturity Matter, 2013). However, The Positive & Negative Impact of Digital Media on Business, 2014 asserted in their study that “due to the mobile marketing, customers gets attracted towards those artifacts which are not required for them” (The Positive & Negative Impact of Digital Media on Business, 2014). So, Mobile marketing can influence and encourage customers towards new products and services which are not so useful for them and are mere waste of money and time. In contrast Tang, 2013 states that “smart phones application is the best source for determining appropriate products and services as per the needs and requirements of customers” (Tang, 2013). Thus, mobile application of the New Look organization includes high range of products and services for different segment of customers. So, it becomes easy for consumers to evaluate different alternatives of products and making the decision for that product which satisfies their needs effectively. In contrast, Mobile Marketing: Examining the Impact of Trust, Privacy Concern and Consumers' Attitudes on Intention to Purchase, 2010 stated that “Pop ups and notifications are also an important part of the mobile marketing but it irritates customers when they busy in their works” (Mobile Marketing: Examining the Impact of Trust, Privacy Concern and Consumers' Attitudes on Intention to Purchase, 2010). Thus, sometimes, mobile marketing by SMS and notification have negative impact on customer’s attitude and behavior. Similarly, Consumer Attitudes toward Mobile Advertising, 2010 concluded that “over mobile marketing and high volume SMS and notification can declines the brand image and loyalty in mind of customers”. Thus, if New Look organization sends bulk messages and notification on apps then customers think that quality of products and service may be low. Therefore, high mobile marketing has negative impact on buying behavior of customer which can reduce the overall sales and performance of the cloths and accessories of New Look organization (Mobile marketing’s impact on your customers, brands and business, 2011).
Along with this, mobile marketing also affects the decision making process of the organization. Such as, a customer, purchases the product from online store of New Look organization because of the positive online reviews of other customers. So, in this situation, customers just attract towards the products and services of company, they do not assess their need for that product but purchase it. This analysis shows that mobile advertising can influence the overall buying process of customers of organization (How customers trust mobile marketing applications, 2013).
Success of mobile marketing is based on the high online shopping of customers of New Look organization. But, there are different privacy and fraud issues involved in shopping online. As per the Online shopping fraud, 2014 major online shopping fraud is that “Delivery of products and services are very late or sometimes customers do not receive their products even after the payment process and other formalities” (Online shopping fraud, 2014). On other hand, Eight important online retail (and marketing) policy issues, 2008 concluded that “for various transactions buyer receives their products on time but seller do not receive payment for cloths and accessories” (Eight important online retail (and marketing) policy issues, 2008). Similarly, in the mobile marketing, organization provides information and promises to their customer for high quality of products. But after the purchase of products, customers realize that received goods are less valuable as compared to mobile advertise and marketing. Thus, it will have negative impact on the organization’s image and customer loyalty (Security concerns cloud holiday shopping, 2005). Along with this it also affect the customer’s perception and purchase decision regarding mobile marketing of fashion industry. In the same way, Survey Reveals Online Fraud Concerns, 2011 concluded in the study that “In the mobile marketing, organization does not disclose all information about products, terms and conditions of online sales of different goods of the fashion organization” (Survey Reveals Online Fraud Concerns, 2011). Thus, by the online shopping customers face the different problems by which they cannot return their products to organization as well as not get the actual value of money.
As per the above discussed frauds, online shopping is also associated with various privacy issues of customers and organization. As per the eight important online retail (and marketing) policy issues, 2008 “Customers are generally concerned with the security of their debit and credit card password at the time of online payment”. So, New Look organization needs to provide their customers high security for their online transactions. On other hand Kumar, 2014 asserted that “Another issue is relevant to the privacy of the private information of customers which are provided by them at the time on online shopping” (Kumar, 2014). This privacy issue also affects the mobile marketing and its effectiveness for New Look organization because private information of buyers may be easily shared and exploited by different online tools and techniques. Sterne, 2010 stated that “various online retailers are suffering from the fraud risk because numerous customers have paid their amount by stolen and fraudulent card” (Sterne, 2010). Due to this reason, they bear the high financial burden which can affect the overall performance of the organization. Along with this, Survey Reveals Online Fraud Concerns, 2011 provided their view that “online shopping do not give the ability to check clothes and accessories before purchase so consumers have associated with the higher risk of fraud as compare to face to face transaction” (Survey Reveals Online Fraud Concerns, 2011).
Therefore, along with the different advantages, online shopping also associated with various frauds and privacy issues which can affect the mobile marketing and performance of the New Look organization.
Perception of the mobile marketing is also different form one customers to others. As per the study of Consumer Perceptions and Attitudes towards Mobile Marketing, 2006 this states that “smart phones users are most open towards the promotional and advertisement messages of the fashion organization” (Consumer Perceptions and Attitudes towards Mobile Marketing, 2006). It means different customers have interest towards the mobile marketing of clothes and accessories of the New Look organization because due to these messages, they can compare the price offers of organization with its competitors. On other hand Loya, 2013 concluded that “Standard phone users are not interested in the app notifications and promotional messages as compare to the smart phone users” (Loya, 2013).
Thus, mobile marketing has an impact on those customers which have smart phones. In contrast Romanian Consumer Perception Towards Mobile Marketing Campaigns, 2014 concluded that “organization uses different applications for online shopping and if its function is more complicated for customers then acceptance level of technology will be reduced” (Romanian Consumer Perception Towards Mobile Marketing Campaigns, 2014). As per the technology acceptance model, more complex technologies are generally not accepted by customers of fashion organization because it takes so much of time which decreases its user friendly aspects. However, Consumers perceptions and attitudes towards SMS mobile marketing in New Zealand, 2014 said that “mobile marketing is helpful for making an appropriate decision for purchase of specific products and services of fashion industry” (Consumers perceptions and attitudes towards SMS mobile marketing in New Zealand, 2014). Thus, different customer though that buying process of fashion accessories can be more effective by the use of effective mobile marketing. Along with this, consumer of the online shopping of New Look organization thought that it is the best way for purchase of any product because it reduces the time, cost and waiting line of consumers (Loya, 2013). Therefore, different customers of the organization have different views towards mobile marketing.
Literature review of the different studies of relevant subject provides an insight to conduct the whole research in an effective way. This section of the study concludes that mobile marketing is an effective tool for fashion industry which promotes their products and services in front of customers. New look organization can use messages, applications, pop-ups, notifications, games, coupons, QR codes and bluetooth marketing, etc. Along with this technology, acceptance model find out that mobile marketing is very user friendly for consumers because they use mobile phones on regular basis. It is very useful for buyers because it facilitates various benefits to them. Thus, acceptance level of this marketing will be very high for customers of New Look. So, fashion organization can easily use this strategy for promotional purpose. In addition, review of historical research on theory of reasoned action and planned behaviour shows that mobile advertising can influence the buying behaviour of the customers. This theory helps in analysing buying behaviour and process of customer when they buy products and services from online stores of selected organization. Literature review on decision making model shows that each consumer follows five stage process of decision making. These include need, search, alternative, decision and post purchase services. Brand equity model shows that by consideration of customers’ needs and requirements, organization can improve their mobile marketing that enhances the overall performance of the company.
It has concluded that different organization use mobile marketing for promoting products and services, increasing the awareness of brand, augmenting sales and income, etc. Along with this, this technique is effective for fashion industry because it is the best source of direct and personalized marketing and mass communication. Along with this, it does not require high cost for spreading the information about latest trends in all over the globe. On other hand, it has positive and negative impacts on customer buying process because of different privacy and fraud issues associated with the mobile marketing. Exchange of goods and payment is the major fraud in online shopping. Security of credit and debit card password and private information are the major privacy issues of online shopping. Due to the various benefits, different customers have positive perception towards mobile marketing but as well as various frauds and privacy issues also develop negative perception towards the same among customers of the New Look organization.
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