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Organizations And Behavior

Sample Report on Organizations And Behavior

Introduction to Organizations And Behavior

Organisations and behaviour both are interrelated to each other. This concerns with working environment of the organisation such as employee behaviour, leadership, management style. These help in understand organisational culture of working and its structure. Participation of individual employee and its behaviour with customers help organisation to set image in the mind of customers. These also help to understand the leadership and management style which followed by particular organisation. These provide guidelines about how enterprise motivates its employee toward objective. OB concern with technology used by that organisation and knowledge of employee to operate.

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Task 1

1.1 Effectiveness of different leadership style in organisations

Every organisation uses different leadership styles for managing its employees. Organisation use leadership style according to working culture of it. Leadership requires understanding human behaviour in the organisation (Bess and Dee, 2012). There are many types of leadership styles which can be use by different organisations, they are as follows:

Autocratic leadership

Under this style of leadership, the leader keep all authority centred and employees have to work as pre order given to them. In this type of leadership decision taking power is in hand of one person. This leadership style helpful in making quick and clear decisions but it lowers the motivation of the employees (Blomme and Te Lintelo, 2012).

Democratic leadership

This leadership style concern with group centred. In these decision are not taken by manager but it taken in consultation with employees. These help in build cooperative relations and open communication. This resulted to high morale of employee but delay in decision making.

Free rein leadership

This leadership style give freedom to employees to take decisions in their working area (Ki and Hon, 2012). Many times these cause of low cooperation.

In context of given case study, City college having autocratic leadership style. Principle is the leader of college and direction is given by them and it is necessary for all to follow that directions. Principle has all rights to make rules & regulation and all the staffs and students have to follow as per order given to them (Nutbeam, Harris and Wise, 2010). Another company Rent-A-Car use democratic leadership style, it gives freedom to employees to provide suggestion relating to their work. The management take decision through including suggestions from employee’s side.

1.2 How organisational theory underpin the practice of management

Organisational theory used in many ways for a business. These help in study of organisational design, organisational structure and its relationship with external environment. Organisation use different styles for work getting done through maximum utilization of resources within a fix time period. These theories help management in focus on the effect of organisation on the behaviour of individual. These also concern with performance, survival and success of the organisation. There are some basic theories which are used in both organisations such as;

Modern organisation theory

This theory concern that organisation is a system which change itself according to the environment. Modern approach is a dynamic process of interaction with others. This is descriptive and adaptive approach for the organisations (Teh and Sun, 2012). Rent-A-Car is working with this theory because they more focused on interaction with its employees and increase motivation level of employees. These also followed by City college because it is necessary to follow discipline in these type of institution and this approach deal with such terms multidisciplinary, descriptive and multi variable.

Contingency or situational theory

This theory describe that, there cannot be universal parameter which is suitable for all situation in company. This system is directly related with environment (Blomme and Te Lintelo, 2012). These approach says that every organisation have different environment and it need different organisational relationship for effectiveness in work.

Administrative theory

This theory focus on accomplishment of task and concern with principle of management and function of management. This theory used by management of both company, Rent-A-Car divided its work on the basis of location office and City college divided its work in different departments according to work.

1.3 Approach to management

Different approach implement to know the degree of complexity in the program and to find objective of the organisation (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2010). The main aim of these approaches is to develop combined use of managerial knowledge. These focus on personal development and management to improve their leadership qualities. All approaches are based on personalisation, building confidence, integrated learning, etc. There are some basic approaches which explain organisation and its structure, they are as follows;

Scientific management approach

These approach deal with planning of work to achieve simplification, standardisation and efficiency. These focus on improve productivity through creating cooperation between management and workers (Hua and Lu, 2013). These approach use by Rent-A-Car for improve its service quality through enterprise service quality index (ESQi) to measure the quality of service provided by company. It deal with scientific selection of the worker and provide scientific training to them. These approach also use by company for train its employee to lead other worker.

Bureaucratic approach

These approach focus on needs of organisation to operate this effectively in the direction of achieving objectives (Darling and Nurmi, 2009). Bureaucratic approach suggests that division of labour need for better outcomes with minimum investment. These approach use by City College where they divide work force according to departments such as teaching, human resource and administration department. Both the organisation use chain of command and hierarchy for effective flow of information from top to bottom.

Human relations approach

These approach concern with human beings, they are not only interested in financial benefits but also need appreciation (Eikenberry, 2013). Rent-A-Car uses these approach through providing scope of growth to the employees.

Task 2

2.1 Impact of different leadership styles on motivation

Leadership has a direct effect on organisation and its success. Leader is the person who directly connects with employees who fall at lower level of hierarchy. They work as a mediator for organisation and workers because organisation gives direction to them and they give to subordinates (Eyal and Roth, 2011). Leadership style is different from company to company and their work as well. All leadership style is useful in different conditions. In the context of case study, leadership styles which can impact on behaviour of the staff are classified further;

Autocratic

These style regularly follow by City college, it helps principle in fast implementation of orders provided to staff. In this type of organisation it is important to have centralised authority system (French, 2011). Autocratic leadership in Rent-A-Car help management to take decision fast but it negatively impacts on the working of employees and cause for lower productivity.

Democratic

This leadership style more successful than any others. These can use by City college for inviting suggestions from staff to improve facility of library and so on, these help in improve participation of the staff. It is also use by Rent-A-Car for taking group opinions and provides rights to take decision of that particular working area (Huang and Hsu, 2009). It will help in motivate employees and result come through increase in productivity.

Laissez faire

This leadership style have no scope in organisation like City college because it need interfere of principle in every kind of decision. These can partly apply in Rent-A-Car enterprise to give freedom on branch level office.

2.2 Application of different motivational theories

These theories can adopt by City College and Rent-A-Car enterprises for increase motivation level of employees.

Maslow's theory

according to this theory, everyone have some basic needs such as personal and relating to their work. Basic need or physiological needs are food, shelter, base salary, etc. When it got fulfil, employee look forward for fulfil its safety (freedom, work safety, job security) needs (Jerome, 2013). This hierarchy also include belongingness (family, friends, teams, supervisors), Self esteem (community, recognition, status in the society, responsibilities) and self-actualisation (personal growth, advancement). But this theory not work with every employee.

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Two factor theory

According to Herzberg theory, there are two main factors which affect motivation in different ways:

  • Hygiene factors:- These include those facilities which appearance are not affect employees in positive way but absent of them are cause of dissatisfaction and de-motivation such as status, job security, salary, work conditions, holiday, etc. (Ki and Hon, 2012). It mainly focuses on extrinsic factors which absent cause of dissatisfaction among employees.
  • Motivators:- These are intrinsic factors and its presence motivate employees. These include sense of achievement, recognition, responsibilities and personal growth. These come under self actualisation in Maslow's theory.

Theory X and Y

according to Douglas McGregor theory management styles are directly influence by beliefs and assumption of employee. It focuses on “what motivates co-worker of a team to do work (Landy and Conte, 2010). Theory X assumes that employees are de-motivated and do not like working. It also assumes that employee avoid responsibilities and need to be direct. Theory Y focuses on management style which is de-centralized and assumes that employees are self motivated and responsible.

2.3 Usefulness of motivation theory for manager

Motivational theory's main aim is to generate profit through motivate its employees. Managers of both companies (City College and Rent-A-Car) can use all motivational theory in below described manner;

Maslow's theory

According to this theory employees have different kind of needs and they are in hierarchy. Manager can go through this theory to identify basic needs of employees. They can fulfil employee’s basic needs by providing food and base salary so that employees get motivated (Marchington and Wilkinson, 2008). When base need of employee fulfil, they want work safety and job security and if manager provide these facilities to them they ultimately get motivated. These include physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualisation needs. Fulfil of these needs resulted to high motivation level of employees.

Two factor theory

Herzberg developed a motivational theory which focus on two separate categories. First of those factors is hygiene factor which cover all those forces that are cause for dissatisfaction if they lacking. So if manager provide good working conditions, pay, job stability, extra benefits and status to the employees, these not result to increase in motivation but it helps in create state of neutrality (Chou and Pearson, 2012). Second factor is motivators which include personal growth, achievement, etc. and these factors stimulate employees to perform at their best level.

Theory X and Y

By concern this theory manager can take decision on the basis of category of employees. Manager wants not to avoid the work of X category's employee and try to support them so that they get motivated. For Y category's employee, manager has to give more responsibilities and opportunities.

Task 3

3.1 Nature of groups and group behaviour

Group behaviour is concerned with interactions and reactions of the people working in a group. The name of the group can be recognised on the basis of the behaviour. There are some qualities, characteristics and differentiations associated with a group which makes its identification (Naranjo-Valencia, Jimenez and Sanz-Valle, 2011). There are two types of groups which includes formal and informal groups.

Enterprise organization is having an informal structure. For instance it functions on the basis of an open door policy. It facilitates the employee to have a direct conversation with their seniors. This denotes that employees are allowed to given their views and opinions on what is happening within the organization. The information flows from one end to the next end in a free manner.
The owner of the Enterprise believes that profits will follow automatically if very good care of customers and employees is kept within the business (Rolfesen, 2012). However, it is to be noted that Enterprise is operating on a big scale and consists of more than 75000 employees. There is a need to bring formal processes and systems for the purpose of maintaining discipline and control within the company.

On the other side at City College a very formal kind of behaviour is found. The organization is divided into three major parts which includes teaching, human resource and administration. Individuals within the company are aware of their respective roles and responsibilities. There is a structure for every department and the information flows from one end to another end in formal manner.

3.2 Factors making team effective as well as threatening

The factors can be described as follows:

Common goal

If some people are working as a team, they are required to have a common goal. Framing of a common goal is essential to bring unity and collectivism (Sevi, 2010). It helps in moulding the efforts of the team members in the same direction. For instance at City College, there are different departments working and they have different goals. Despite of that they all work together that means the administration division unites with the human resource division for the management of records related to students in the college. On the other side in the absence of a common goal, people will focus on their individual goal rather than the common goal. Hence, this can be a threat to the business.

Leadership

Selection of a leadership style also makes an impact on the behaviour of the group and team (Bess and Dee, 2012). For example at Enterprise, managers adopt different leadership styles according to the given conditions. There are leaders at different levels within the hierarchy. However, selection of wrong style of leadership may lead to ineffective results. The followers may not get influenced from their leaders due to wrong leadership styles

3.3 Impact of technology on team functioning

Both the organisation needs technology for improvement in its working. It allows companies to work efficiently with effectiveness. Nowadays technology change very fast and it is necessary to update teams itself for functioning effectively. Impact of technology on the functioning of team is as follows:

  • Efficient productivity:- The use of technology help company in efficient its productivity (Blomme and Te Lintelo, 2012). Use of technology such as social media helps City College to attract more students and help Rent-a-car in getting more customers.
  • Better communication:- Use of technology help in improve the communication in team members and it directly help in team building.

Conclusion

Both the organisation operation on large level, City College divides its work into departments and Rent-a-car divides its operation in different branch offices. The college prefer working with local community. These organisations use autocratic style of leadership. Rent-a-car focuses on enterprise service quality index (ESQi) and using democratic leadership style.

References

  • Bess, L. J. and Dee, R. J., 2012. Understanding College and University Organization: Theories for Effective Policy and Practice. Stylus Publishing, LLC.
  • Blomme, R. and Te Lintelo, K., 2012. Existentialism and organizational behaviour. Sage.
  • Buchanan, D. and Huczynski, A., 2010. Organizational Behavior and Companion Website Access. Financial Times/Prentice Hall.
  • Chou, S. and Pearson, J., 2012. Organizational citizenship behaviour in IT professionals: an expectancy theory approach. Management Research Review.
  • Darling, J. and Nurmi, R., 2009. Key contemporary paradigms of management and leadership: A linguistic exploration and case for managerial leadership. European Business Review.
 
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