Health Promotion

Health Care management practises

Introduction To Health Promotion

Health promotion is a course of action which enables a person in enhancing their control on their physical well being along with related determinants. In recent times, due to unhealthy lifestyle and more consumption of fast food, problem of lack of nutrition has been observed especially in adolescence (Defining health promotion, 2013). This is due to the fact that they are more attracted to such type of food items in order to match with present environment. Due to this, it becomes quite essential for them to take some of corrective measures for the purpose of reducing catastrophic results on their health (Hassandoust and et. al., 2011).

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In addition to this, it is the first and foremost duty of government to take some initiatives by preventing health problems by taking some severe actions. In regard to this, staff of health promotions has taken some measures in generating awareness among general public especially adolescence so that they can focus on their health and intake of nutrition (Dickinson and Glasby, 2009). Here, in this present report emphasis has been laid on one of the most common issues which is being faced is nutrition. Current data regarding health promotions of intake and lack of nutrition of adult youngsters in UK is going to be discussed. The statement has been followed by application of two theories of health promotion selecting for the same. In this context, Theory of reasoned action and transtheoretical model is going to be studied in terms of nutrition.  

Rationale for selecting theory and target group

The major reason for selecting both these theories is that it will provide assistance to youngsters of UK in generating knowledge regarding risks due to lack of proper nutrition in their body. In addition to this, provide some suggestion by means of which they can increase intake of healthy food diets. By means of these theories, individuals will come to know about significance of their life along with sound health (Developing a Population Health Promotion Model, 2014). This will prove to be of great use in developing positive behavior towards life and mental and physical condition so that they can be attracted towards healthy food habits. Transtheoretical theory is going to be provide details regarding ways in which can be healthy lifestyle can be adopted and unhealthy can be neglected (VanVactor, 2013).

It comprises of number of steps, this will provide assistance to persons in avoiding unhealthy eating habits and lead happy life ahead. In the similar manner, theory of reasoned action will help in predicting intention of individual along with attitude and behavior of their concerned parties such as family and friends. Both these approaches assist individuals to quit unhealthy eating habits along with to change their attitude with an aim to lead disease free life (Norcross, Krebs and Prochaska, 2011).

There exist range of theories of health promotion, these two were selected as they play an important role in curing persons from unhealthy lifestyle and persuade them to have enough nutrition on daily basis. By means of this, mindset of individuals can be changed as a result to which their behavior can be transformed. These are regarded as self control programs through which adolescence that are addicted towards fast foods, cold drinks etc. can cope up with potential of these approaches (Garland and Garland, 2006). Likewise, risky situations such as social pressure and emotional state of a person can also be evaluated within short span of time. Adolescence or teenagers are has been selected as target group as they are more prone to diseases that takes place due to lack of nutrition in one’s body. On the basis of the survey, it has been revealed that individuals falling between this age group are more attracted towards adopting unhealthy eating habits as a result to which poses difficulty in near future (Brown, Cueto and Fee, 2006).

Current position of health promotion

As per the current statistics regarding intake of nutrition in United Kingdom, lack of nutrients has turn out to be one of the most common problem through which large number of population has got affected. According to The National Diet and Nutrition Survey, due to unhealthy eating habits and lack of nutrients around 19.2% population of age group between 10-11 are found to be obese and further 14.7% were overweight due to unhealthy eating practice (Ezziane and et. al., 2012). On the basis of data from Health Survey for England has demonstrated that obesity has increased from 13.9% in 1995 to 24.3% in 2004 and similarly, fallen slightly to 23.8% in 2011 in boys of age group of 11-15 years (New National Diet and Nutritional Survey, 2014).

The major reason for this was the lack of intake of proper nutrients and healthy supplements in their food. This has also increased the problem of type 2 diabetes along with heart disease in adolescence up to great extent (Relationship between malnutrition and health, 2014). It has been seen that individuals has started taking fast foods and contaminated drinks such as pizza, burger, cold drinks, packed juices, pastas and other types of items which has divert their attention from taking healthy food and homemade food items. In accordance with the statistics of 2011 and 2012, the average saturated intake of fat in all adolescences has exceeded the recommended level by more than 11% (Mackay and et. al., 2012).

Key components of models of health promotion

There exist range of key components of both these theories which provides assistance to individuals with nutritional value along with to understand value of their health and well being. With the help of transtheoretical theory they will be able to evaluate varied level of process so that at the time when people goes through it, it becomes easy for them to eradicate bad eating practice which is laying negative impact on their health in long run (Buse and et. al., 2005). This particular model tends to justify manner in which individual in future will get influenced fro his/her changing behavior. So it can be articulated that it is quite supportive in enhancing awareness level of people that has bad food habits which has affected their health in long run (Anderson and McFarlane, 2010).

In the similar manner, various drives and campaigns of health promotion as well as social workers also render their valuable health and support for the purpose of guiding and providing direction of adolescence so that their habits can be changed or modified accordingly (Norcross, Krebs and Prochaska, 2011). In such type of programs, equal opportunities are being provided to patients as well as social workers so that they can communicate and interact openly without any hesitation. This will prove to be of great use in making them understand various consequences that they may face due to lack of nutrition in their body in near future. With the help of this, teenagers will feel motivated and encouraged to adopt healthy lifestyle pattern along with positive attitude towards new changes (Ford and Furlong, 2005).

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In the similar manner, theory of reasoned action is concerned with explanation of limiting factors on attitudinal influence. This model is more focused towards attitude of adolescence towards the behavior of their near one such as family and relatives towards their habits. It is a well known fact that home is first school of child; this implies that they learn to adopt behavior as well as habits by looking at their family members (Brown, Cueto and Fee, 2006). So, as per the present case of nutrition due to excessive intake of unhealthy food items and other materials they tend to consume such items personally which has laid direct impact on their health. This theory is entirely based on belief of others and by taking proper steps or actions they can comply with others in leaving unhealthy eating habits behind.

With the help of this approach, people have become more controlled and developed as a result to which they easily cope up with the situations (Aronson, Wilson and Akert, 2003).

Health needs of adolescence

The selected  group of people whose nutritional count is quite low is adolescence in UK, they have adopted unhealthy food habits in need of some great taste and varieties which make them feel happy. On the other hand, they indulge in such types of habits due to absence of time on the part of their parents or hectic work schedules. For this, they requite healthy work environment along with people who has healthy living habits so that eradicate this problem (Dickinson and Glasby, 2009). In the similar manner, they also required social as well as emotional hold up for the purpose of quitting this tendency of unhealthy food which offers less nutrition. The health needs of teenagers is quite high as they are involved in various types of activities such as studying, playing and so on which consume lots of energy which can only be fulfilled by taking healthy diet and supplements that are rich in nutrients value (Dixon, Hinde and Banwell, 2006).

It is the first and foremost responsibility of family and friends to encourage person to start consuming healthy vegetables, whole wheat, fruits, rice and other nutritious things to stay healthy and fit in long run. Enthusiastic environment can also be encouraged so that they can lead their life with smoothness and positivity for further growth and development (VanVactor, 2012).

Application of selected health promotion theories in promoting health of population

With the help of theory of reasoned action, guidance in designing, implementing along with interventions can be evaluated in order to prevent persons from lack of nutritional count. Evers 2006 has stated that it is the commonly utilized intrapersonal theory which is used for predicting behavioral intentions and behavior. All the behaviors that are examined under this model are under complete voluntary control (Evers, 2006). But it is to be critically evaluated that it has been observed that most of the attitudes of persons with bad and unhealthy eating practices are not necessarily covered under volitional control, due to which more components are going to be add in near future (Buse and et. al., 2005).

As per the point of many researchers, it has been observed that the major cause behind lack of intake of nutrition in diet among adolescence of UK is that both their parents are working so that they did not have time to prepare food as a result to which they consume outside and preserved food (Ezziane and et. al., 2012). On the flip side, taste and texture is also major factor that draw attention of large number of people towards it apart from hectic work schedules. It has been seen that individuals as well as adolescences that have strong determination are competent enough to develop number of ways to cope with high risk situations as compared to those with less will power (Garland and Garland, 2006). So, by means of this model self confidence and strength of people can be enhanced up to certain extent. Adolescence will be able to learn new things and eating habits from their surrounding and family and friends. This will encourage their desire to enhance consumption of nutrition by means of looking at others (Anderson and McFarlane, 2010).

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The transtheoretical theory model tends to deliver information regarding varied stages in which people with less nutritional count act. With the help of this model, overall modifications can be carried out in behavior as well as thinking level of people so that they can cope up with their practices (Mackay and et. al., 2012). But on the other hand, it cannot be regarded as an event as it comprises of five stages such as pre contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance. Individuals have to go through these levels for the purpose of improving their eating habits. Each stage has some sort of motivational factor which help people in changing their life in a way that they starts consume food rich in nutritional value. But on the flip side, most of the adolescence are unaware of the fact that at what time they should quit unhealthy practices (Hassandoust and et. al., 2011).

In case of pre contemplation stage, people that consume fast foods are quite lenient about their health and do not give importance towards making changes in their behavior. But it is to be critically evaluated that people are it is essential for me them to make changes in their life in order to remain active (Naidoo and Wills, 2000). As per the views of many authors, it has been seen that majority of people are unaware about ill effects of less nutritional count in their body. In contemplation level, people started taking care of their body and take initiatives for improving their health (Norcross, Krebs and Prochaska, 2011).

But on the other hand, plans of most of the people do not get converted into action. In this particular step, family, friends and relatives also pressurize persons to eradicate this unhealthy practice so that they lead happy and healthy life in near future (Chandler, 2006). This makes teenagers to thing beyond as a result to which they take necessary steps to modify their habits for them as they are the people who matters most to them in world. But on the other hand, carelessness from their part is also responsible for teenagers adopting this habit (Aronson, Wilson and Akert, 2003).

Determination stage is yet another stage, in which person with bad eating habits turn out to be quite strong minded that they have to adopt healthy habits. They tend to demonstrate commitment in order to alter their tendencies towards food with fewer nutrients. But it is to be critically evaluated that strong determination is not only required to bring changes in their daily course of action (Ford and Furlong, 2005). As per point of view of many scholars, it has been observed that support and participation from family and friends is also equally responsible. This process proves to be of great use in avoiding addiction of teenagers towards junk food or items with less nutrition (Scriven and Garman, 2007).

On the flip side, success will be ensured in case if all modifications remain constant and carried out regular period of time. In regard to this, it is quite important to retain changes and ensure its consistency so that maximum benefit can be extracted out. After this, only people can get ample amount of benefit from theory (Dixon, Hinde and Banwell, 2006). For the adolescences having less nutritional value, it is quite essential for them to avoid such habits again. This is due to the fact that once they start taking it, it will become quite difficult for them to avoid (VanVactor, 2012). Last but not the least, in action stage final actions has been taken with an aim to improve the conditions. On the other hand, in maintenance stage of this theory individual has to maintain steadiness and level of changes in order to attain desired results. In case they fail to maintain the same, they will not be able to retain their modifications back (Weber and Janet Gillespie, 2001).


From the above mentioned research report, it can be rightly concluded that health promotion theories proves to be of great use in changing ill habits of people which ultimately bring changes in their overall behavior and attitude. Promotional campaigns as well as drives which has been mentioned in this theory provides assistance to individuals and concerned parties to generate awareness so that they can change their habits for betterment along with further growth and development. With the help of this, existing level of knowledge has increased and at the same point of time they are being educated regarding ill effects of lack of nutrients in their body in long run. In regard to this, two theories of health promotion such as transtheoretical model and the theory of reasoned action has been selected for the purpose of avoiding unhealthy eating practices among adolescences in UK.

These theories has played very crucial role and provided assistance in modifying attitude and behavior of people up to certain extent. By means of these models, steps have been taken to make people realize importance of healthy lifestyle for them and for their family members and friends. The various stages of these theories has proved to be of great use in undertaking alterations in entire course of action as a result to which they get motivated and encouraged to consume adequate amount of nutrition in their diet by eradicating fast foods and drinks.  


For the purpose of changing eating habits of adolescences residing in UK, there exist various recommendations that can be rendered to them to improve the same. In regard to this, first and foremost it is highly suggested to their family members to start making healthy and fresh food at home so that they did not go out for eating. It is necessary on their part to bring creativity and innovation in food items so that it draw attention of teenagers and persuade them to eat. In the similar manner, it is advisable to government agencies to put a strict check on selling of food items and drinkables that has low nutrient value and start providing license for selling. License must not provide to eatables that has less than recommended value.

This will generate awareness level of people and at the same time it will not be provided at market place. In addition to this, it is highly recommended to schools and colleges in UK to stop and ban selling of such food items in canteens. This is because of the reason that they are the major source that delivers unhealthy articles which has reduces nutrients in the body of teenagers. They can even introduce warning system at the front of canteens in which ill effects of consumption of such items should be maintained. By means of this, they will be able to bring dangerous points of such things in their mind.


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