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Densification of London Suburbs

1.1 Background

Densification is the process of assessing the alternative to resolve the issues related to increase in Capital housing needs. This is because suburban areas do not have the potential to build many house projects but still many of boroughs are there to fulfilling increasing demand of housing project. It is a well-known fact that City like London have promised to deliver good quality of life to people who are residing in London (Home truths, 2014). Owing to this, the issues related to capital housing need becomes crucial to address issues faced by general community. However, by meeting higher demand of housing creates huge cost for government of UK. The reason behind increasing cost is demolition of some of old estate and making huge building so that people can get the place to reside. However, they require several other facilities such as accommodation, shops, and schools further they need the communities to be developed. Owing to this, residential areas must be supported with all important amenities through which people can easily live better life.

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1.2 Rationale of study

The current study is being conducted to assess the impact of increasing population on capital housing project. This increase in population of country is becoming serious issues for the government of Capital. This is because it is becoming critical to meet expectations of individual related to housing. Supply of land in present boarders of London is the main issues; however, there are many more suburban areas where housing projects can be completed for the residents which can help in resolving the issues. At this juncture, effectiveness of outer areas of London is taken into account so that need of capital housing can be fulfilled without impacting on London

1.3 Aim and objectives

The aim and objectives of current study are formulated as follows that serves as the basis for study through which study has been completed by selecting appropriate sources of information.

Aim

To analyze sustainability of densification of outer London and its effectiveness in satisfying the housing needs.

Objectives

The objectives of study are formulated as follows in accordance with research aim which aim to fulfill aim in specified time span. This aspect facilitates scholars in drawing valid conclusion-

  • To study sustainability of densification of London suburbs
  • To analyses the effectiveness of densification in satisfying housing needs of outer London
  • To assess the cost of densification of Outer London in context of Capital’s housing needs
  • To provide suggestions to meet Capital housing needs using densification

Research questions

The research questions are prepared as follow through which research get assistance for completion of study in proper manner-
Major research question- Is densification of Outer London a sustainable way to satisfy the Capital’s housing needs and if so at what cost?

Secondary research questions

  1. Are London Suburbs suitable to accommodate high density developments and if so how dense?
  2. Does suburban densification and increased population provide genuine and sustainable opportunities to regenerate declining Outer London town centres and ageing suburban housing stock?
  3. What are the implications of densification in the London suburban to meet Capital housing needs?
  4. Can high density in London Suburbs be compatible with the character of this areas or does it mean losing their identity and the reasons why people moved to those areas?
  5. What are implication of high density development in Outer London?
  6. How high density development in the suburban areas can be achieved?
  7. Are local residents taken into account when proposing higher density developments and if so to what extend?
  8. Does London Planning Authorities regulate towers in Outer London areas or increasing trend is good way of densification in these areas.

1.4 Significance of study

The present study on densification of outer London is the effective method for providing answer to the capital's housing needs. In this manner construction industry and government jointly can assess the impact of increasing housing demand. This study helps the scholar who are doing thesis in the same field as through which they can get detail information related to the studied topic. Furthermore, study under investigation also support construction industry to assess potential impact of increasing demand of housing projects. Hence, it uncovers different aspect for providing right solution for government of London or housing sector in the form of suggestions.

1.5 Structure of dissertation

The structure of current dissertation has been presented which consists of five different chapters. Each of these chapters contribute major part of study which results in gaining the outcome in an effectual manner-

Chapter 1 Introduction: It is the most important chapter of study which provides detail overview regarding impact of increasing population on capital housing project. It enables the researchers to adopt effective methodology to be applied for drawing valid conclusion. Furthermore, chapter of introduction consists of background, rationale and significance of the study. These topics give overview regarding study which is being carried out.

Chapter 2 Literature review: This is the second chapter of dissertation that deals with secondary information related to the study. It is based on different sources like journals, books and online articles through which the researcher develops strong base to achieve the aim of the study in an effectual manner.

Chapter 3 Research methodology: The chapter of research methodology shed light on different methodologies used in study such sources of data collection and techniques applied for analyzing the gathered information. In addition to this, detail related to research design, philosophy as well as research approach is provided along with detail discussion.

Chapter 4 Data analysis: This is the fourth and foremost chapter which focuses upon techniques applied for evaluating collected primary or secondary data. Here, research gives rationale behind selection of appropriate techniques. Furthermore, appropriate techniques are applied for analyzing the collected detail in context of research aim and objectives.

Chapter 5 Conclusion and recommendations: This is the last chapter of dissertation which provides conclusive form of information along with recommendation through which improvement can be take in the light of densification in London.

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Chapter 2: Literature review

2.1 Concept of sustainable densification

General definition of densification is to increase the use of space both horizontally and vertically in a particular area. In simple words, Densification is known as a process of increasing the density of something, however, it can also be termed as compaction. The process is a physical one that occurs naturally whereby sediments are compacted and combined. However, it has been noticed that densification allows the residues and grains to be consolidated over time. The concept of densification is carried out to fulfill the housing need of people in the areas where population is continuously growing. It is generally proposed as a solution to the excessive soil consumption and development of areas so as to meet the housing needs of individuals. To the view point of (Gordon and Travers, 2010), cities with high density and mixed use are usually promoted to support sustainable development. However, the fact always remains unclear what is actually needed to make huge density of an area while consideration of alleged benefits with sustainability.

2.2 Housing crisis in London

Instead of being a highly competitive and successful city, London is evident with the depths of housing crisis. The major reason behind such is increasing demand for housing which exceeds supply and has been doing for a long time. In addition, anticipated population growth which is about a million people over the last 10 years is also a main reason, however, there are only 2,02,400 houses have built in the same period of time. In near future, capital’s population is going to increase by 1 million people till the end of 2021. Therefore, it is quite difficult to meet the housing need of increased population and thus, the situation is unsustainable. However, further challenges in relation to price inflation have been evident due to principles of supply and demand. In the investigation carried out by (Bolleter and Ramalho, 2014), demand side is evident with continue prices soar and people of London are struggling to find a suitable and affordable place to stay or live. On the other hand, supply side is evident with declining as London is behind in the way to build house and satisfy the resident’s needs. The author further revealed that in case, if this trend continues then it will weaken competitiveness of London.

To flourish business continuously in London and to remain competitive in the world’s economy, it is needed to build more homes and at more affordable prices so as to support rising population and labour force. To resolve the housing problems of London, it becomes crucial to make some radical changes in some major areas as only marginal change is not going to deliver the step alteration in house building needs of London (Home truths, 2014. According to the investigation conducted by (), it can be seen that there are number of factors restraining private residential development which can be addressed by making political actions like it was done previously in the boroughs i.e. City Hall and Westminster. Londoners have to be provided with homes this decade and the next so it has to focus on creating a climate on order to conducive and encourage more investment in housing development. Demand of house building is increasing due to raising births and people are living longer. These reasons have increased the density of population (Bowie, 2015).

At many time, London is seen to be crowded, however, it cannot be said as a high density city in accordance with global standards. To meet the housing needs of London, it becomes crucial to assess the long-term population forecast as well as to focus on outer London borough density and make record levels. High level of density can bring out many benefits which may sustain businesses as well as services some agglomeration benefits. The biggest example of such benefits is West End and City, as after densification, there can be seen a rich mix of economic activities and employment (Bowie, 2015).

3. Densification of outer London (policies)

Outer London policies are set of key procedures established by the government of UK in order to ensure the development and meet the housing need of individual living in London. According to the OLC (Outer Commission London) and review of London plan, major focus is laid on specific aspects such as accommodating growth of London and Removing barriers which are faced in delivering housing projects. Other aspect covered in the plan is effective arrangement for better coordination of strategic policy and infrastructure investment across South East of England (Redefining Density, 2015). In addition to this, Green Belt policy of London reflects that supply of homes will be availed in areas of high demand. However, at present government gives authority to make houses on such location also by focusing on exception situations. Accordingly changes are made on National Planning policy as per the consultation on proposed changes. These changes were made for meeting delivery related to new homes (National Planning Policy, 2016). However, new buyers are offered homes at low cost. Similarly, commuters hub are targeted for residential density under which individual can have their own home even at low cost.

4. Effectiveness of densification in satisfying housing needs of outer London

According to Alexander (2014) sustainable densification is important for meeting housing need of outer London. Under this, all parties associated with project will get benefit in term of optimum utilization of natural resources such as Land. He argued that process of densification begin with search margin in existing building for meeting requirement for homes. Here, emphasis is laid on providing homes for needy people in outer London. This is because outer London has greater opportunities for providing homes to increasing population. Here, public transport and other basic facilities are provide for individual so they can easily get houses in cost effective manner. However, government get the best deal by utilizing limited land through which expectations of individual living in London can be met in an effective manner.

Densification will cost higher for government because of making houses in existing building by enhancing their capacities. But the process of providing basic facilities becomes quite convenient as population can access to public transport. Furthermore, green spaces and other related natural resources will also be saved effectively.

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2.5. Sustainability of densification of outer London

To the view point of Johnston and et.al. (2016) sustainability is a major concerned area of densification in which expansion of outer London areas can be focused on sustainable development of city. There was a Howard’s proposal that aimed to promote low density urban development which was further laid out major principles of sustainability. Densification of the area has affected layout of early 21st century British suburbs which initiated a solution for urbanization problems faced within Inner London, specially to those areas in which density was equated with poverty, overcrowding and low social status.

Sustainability of densification of outer London is associated with many factors such as use of land, green spaces and gardens as well as transport system of country. Here, the most common fact is that population of London is growing year by year where it is expected to reach 10 million till 2030 and by 2050, it will be nearly 11.5 million. It reflects that housing demand is increasing due to higher proportion of population in nation or city. According to this, there is a need to make 49000 new homes in the present and future time (2025). As per the current scenario, different means can be adopted to increase housing provision for London. The first one is related to enhancement of densities in two centers where focus will be laid on good public transport provision. Furthermore, suburban housing will be renewed for the purpose of fulfilling expectation of general community. It will be cost effective aspect under which all the basic amenities will be provided to individual without harming external environment (Kong, 2012).

Growth in outside areas of London will be ensured for sustainability aspect of densification where green spaces of city will be preserved effectively. At the same time, sustainable development of transport is also necessary where different factors such as study, shop and play as well as living place of people are considered. It can be critically evaluated that modernization has reduced the need of travel to a great extent. This is because technological development assists many of people to travel less and deliver good quality of products as well as services at home. However, London is not dense city in comparison to other countries like Madrid and Paris (Touati‐Morel, 2015). This city contains number of areas related to green space, water and Green Belt but many parts of the capital have good transport facilities. On critical note, low housing density of London creates issue in making effective project and meeting housing need of people.

Major opportunities of densification is in London where transport facilities and effective homes can be made to resolve current issues related to capital housing projects. Hence, the focus is laid on building homes by making optimum utilization of limited land. Here, better use of land can be seen in terms of enhancing household building to make just a tenth of these one million additional homes required in next 10 year (Kyttä, and et.al. 2013). Then, it will be considered that house building target can be reached to 52000 new homes in every year.

6. Cost of densification of Outer London in context of Capital’s housing needs

According to the leading commenters of the society, it has been felt that the increasing density has threatened London in a wider way which is significantly indicating towards the cost of business. On the other hand, it has witnessed that without some increase in supply of housing and commercial space, it becomes difficult to meet the housing need as an increase in real estate value is seen. In addition to that, there can be seen upward pressure on prices which is also considered as a cost of densification. The author further revealed that if global players can afford to buy or rent houses, it can also be threat of densification (Bagnato, A., 2011). However, many of inner London boroughs are welcoming the growth and consequent opportunities of densification into the areas, while to the other side, outer London is seen conserved about the impact of development on the quality of life, this is the reason for why the developments close to leafy suburbs are often opposed.

Within London, there have been found that outer areas/ boroughs are considerably getting the most out of the development. However, number of policies have to be changed for supporting development and it is needed to tougher management of assess the impacts of development (Kyttä and et.al. 2013). The cost associated with densification is of noise, disruption during construction, increasing traffic and anti-social behaviour which affects the environment of London. Nonetheless, local authorities have greater powers to deal such so that residents need to feel secure about their quality of life. The governments and local authorities must be ensured about penalties to compliance with rules on noise and general disturbance which can be resolved. Alexander (2014) explained that policy reform must be provided residents with some tangible and valuable such as sustained development of new local infrastructure son as to secure support from the local public.

Infrastructure investment and development may reduce the cost of densification which should be less problematic to deliver. The government reforms can make real difference to planning and catering for outer London’s densification so as to reduce the cost.

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is a major aspect of an investigation which includes the tools and methods which are going to be used for answering the research questions. The investigation herewith is going to make use of different methods of research which are suitable to reach the objective of the study (Saunders and et. al., 2010). The aim of present investigation is to analyze sustainability of densification of outer London and its effectiveness in satisfying the housing needs, therefore range of research tactics are used which are mentioned in the present section along with suitable justifications. This part of study includes research approach, type of research as well as data collection and analysis method which are backed with suitable justification. The ethical consideration taken into account, during the investigation along with limitations of study are explained in the present section.

3.1 Multi- methodological Approach

Multi methodological approach is one in which different method are used to reach the objectives of the investigation. This involves use of more than one method of collecting data collection in research study. The approach allows researcher to conduct the investigation in different ways to answer the research question in a specific manner while gathering information from range of sources. Mixed methods researchis used where it is needed to mix qualitative and quantitative data, methods, methodologies, and/or paradigms to reach the objectives (Saunders, and et. al., 2007). In respect with the present investigation, multi methodological approach is so as to draw valid conclusions that would defiantly help us to understand the policies and politics surrounding the way local planning authorities deal approach high density developments in the suburban context. However, it also helps in identifying the impact of densification and related policies to well-established areas. While following the multi methodological approach for the present investigation, this investigation is divided into three major sections that are further related to collection of different type of data or evidence (Kothari, 2011). These three methods include Background research, Case studies and Interview with relevant involved parties/stakeholders. In this way, it can be said that a triangulation methods is used for the investigation in which is the combination of methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon is applied in the present investigation. The form of research method used herewith is called as convergent methodology and often said as a mixed methodology. The rationale behind using cited approach is that it considered as a best way to give a clear picture of the current situation. In addition, it reduces uncertainty surrounding the present investigation relation to collection of data or information. Here, the main area is of collecting data for the present investigation and the use of multi methodological approach allows investigator to gather wide range of data while using quantitative and qualitative methods.

3.2 Type of research

On the research world, there are used two major types of research such as qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative Researchis often considered as exploratoryresearch which is used to gain understanding in relation to underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations behind the study. The use of qualitative research type is use to make insights into the problems and it also helps researchers in developing ideas or hypotheses. On the other hand, Quantitative type of research is associated with collection of numerical form like as statistics, percentages, etc (Silverman, 2010). From the point of view of the investigators , the use of quantitative method is suitable in the areas where by problem of the study is to be quantify by way of generating numerical data which may be further transformed into useful statistics. In addition to that, quantitative research type is used in the studies so as to quantify attitudes, opinions, and behaviors, from large sample population. Here, the present investigation is aimed at to analyze sustainability of densification of outer London and its effectiveness in satisfying the housing needs, therefore, it is needed to collect the data from both the perspective. Hence, it can be said that both the types of research were useful to be considered in the investigation. In respect to the present investigation both qualitative and quantitative type is used. The rationale behind using qualitative type of research is to collect the sufficient data on densification and the impact of such on satisfying London housing needs along with addressing the policy initiatives of government. Along with this, the study requires to make use of structural data which is all through possible to be collected by following a qualitative methods of research. The evidence of qualitative research is to be seen the literature review section. In addition to that, quantitative research type is used to collect the responses from stakeholders and other involved parties so there responses which are gathered in numerical format can be analyzed and carried out which specific findings.

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Quantitative data have been collected using a semi structured face-to-face interview for which narrow question are expected to be answered in numerical format (Singh, 2010). The rationale behind using quantitative and qualitative research type is the Multi methodological approach which is used for the present investigating, hence, in the present investigation both the type of research methods are evident to be complementing each other rather than seeing them as confronting research methods.

3.3 Background research

Background research refers to the procedure for gaining deep understanding related to topic under investigation. This provides overview for designing and understanding experiment thereby strong base is prepared for conducting study in successful manner (Kothari, 2011). For this purpose, at first researcher recognize key words of the dissertation such as densification and its concepts along with its use in ensuring well being of capital of UK. However, other key words like suburbs and sustainability are taken into account whereby it becomes easy to apply effective methodology to reach at aim of the study. However, scholar for conducting background research will further search for information needed to complete entire project.

Owing to this, previous studies will be referred to collect more information. Thus, sources like articles, books and other related material has been accessed for gathering detail related to densification in the suburban context. It assisted researcher in accumulating facts regarding planning policy documents at regional, national and local level. This aspect facilitates to reflect upon effectiveness of densification in outer London. In addition to this, different secondary sources are accessed in order to collect more and more quantitative data in context of implementation approach of densification in suburban areas. This is also helpful for analyzing study gap which can be easily removed by incorporation of appropriate primary and secondary information (Bhattacharyya, 2009). Therefore, background research plays important role in assessing detail information or any reliable facts of study which contribute towards towards providing proper solution for which study is being conducted.

3.4 Case studies

Case studies are referred in research for assessing a particular situation which shed light on different alternative solution which could be adopted by corporation or country. The method of case study is helpful to draw real world situation in accordance with testing of theoretical model. By applying case study conclusion is drawn as per the usefulness of scientific theories and models in real world (Crowther and Lancaster, 2012). The present study on densification of London applies case studies for gathering data and assessing effectiveness of selected approach for problem related to capital housing need. At this juncture, four case studies are referred which consists of different areas from local authority. However, focus has been laid of selection of areas from each region such as North, South, East and West. All these selected areas cover specific features such as social, economic and physical that aids to resolve increasing housing need in capital. Many of the cases are related to those areas where chance of densification are higher within town center. Some of them consists of Opportunity Areas or Intensification Areas. The current dissertation includes following areas of study-

Area of study (London Borough of Barnet – North London)

Inglis Barracks - Mill Hill East

Area of study (London Borough of Kingston – South London)

Charter Quay - Charter Quay was an under-used and unsightly former industrial riverside site located in the historic town center of Kingston-upon-Thames.

Area of study ( London Borough of Waltham Forest – East London)

Walthamstow Arcade

Area of study (London Borough of Ealing – West London)

Dickens Yard

These above mentioned areas are considered for development where personnel or general community can easily meet their housing demand. However, future targets can be met effectively by searching opportunities for effective densification in these particular locations. These areas are considered utmost for the purpose of sustainable denisification so that green spaces etc can be preserved without affecting beauty of city. It is also helpful in reserving natural resources with optimum utilization of limited land by making house in public transport areas etc (Fiegen, 2010).

3.5 Interviews

The collection of primary data is also the important task for any study as it support researcher in gathering appropriate data in the light of research aim and objectives (Jackson, 2010). There are several methods for collecting primary information such as questionnaire, observation and interview. Here, questionnaire method consists of both open and closed ended questions through which respondents provide their views to fulfill purpose of study in right manner. On the other hand, interview is other aspect for collecting primary information where respondents are provided open ended questionnaire (Kuada, 2012). The interviewers or researcher ask questions from respondents which in turn responses are recorded in sheet. It serves as the basis to analyze gathered data in right manner. It reflects that interview method has been applied for present dissertation on densification of London. For this purpose, views of residents are taken into account that aid to provide information related to convenience such as transportation, basic amenities etc. This process support construction industry as well s government to address issues which are being faced by general community.

However, different parties associated with interview process are listed as follows-

  1. GLA
  2. Local Authority (x4, one of each case study area)
  3. Residents/Residents Associations (Mill Hill Residents Association, Walthamstow Residents Association; Chartered Quay Residents Association, Save Ealings Centre Association.
  4. Architect/NLA/Mayor Advisory Group (possible interviewees – Peter Murray/Sunand Prasad)

The above mentioned parties' view have been taken for accomplishing purpose of study. Here, areas selected for studies are also considered at the time of conducting interview process. Under this scholar assess exact information related to scope of densification and its sustainability aspect for London. Here, research will use inductive approach while collecting interview (Ihantola and Kihn, 2011). Here basis will be background or past record or situation of capital housing need in city. This aspect proves to be effective in developing strong base for research issue. Accordingly, it becomes possible to provide valid recommendation for sustainable densification in London.

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3.6 Ethical considerations

The success of an investigation is basically based on the ethical norms that are to be considered at the time of conducting a study. A researcher should always concerned about the ethical norms there must be followed during study. The major issue associated with the investigation is of lack of knowledge in relation to the research topic and the interest of researcher in the field. Here, to overcome the present issue, researcher had gained sufficient knowledge about the investigation that makes it easier to understand each and every aspect of the study (Franklin, 2012). To attain the objective of the investigation, it is also easier to ethical issues such as collection of data. The data used for the analysis must be authentic and reliable. For the present investigation both the data collection method have been used such as primary and secondary, hence, it is crucial to collect in an ethical manner. In the collection of primary investigation, participates of the research are previously informed about the purpose and objective of the investigation and there permission is taken prior to take responses from them. The respondent of the investigation are asked about their consent to be taken part in the investigation, and not a single forceful method is used to take their responses. In addition to that, transparency has been maintained throughout the investigation. Here, it is to be noticed that the respondents of the study are provided with an option to leave the investigation if they want. Confidentiality aspects is maintained so that barriers can be reduced. The data gathered from the participants have been kept confidential and not a single their party was allowed to take unethical benefits from the investigation (Bhattacharyya, 2009). However, in the secondary data collation method, authentic and reliable sources have been used to collect data. The authorised online sites are used to take out secondary data for the research. Throughout the investigation, the issue of plagiarism is taken into consideration and the information included in the study is property cited by the relevant authors. Hence, plagiarism aspect is considered by the investigator to overcome ethical issues. Overall, it can be said that information collated from primary and secondary sources are used to attain the purpose of the investigation.

3.8 Limitations of research

Every research is followed by some of the limitations which affect its completion process to a great extent. The current study on densification of London is based on both primary and secondary information. The limitation of present dissertation are explained as follows-

Prolonged process-Completion of entire study in less time span is not at all possible for researcher because of inclusion of several activities. The present study uses case studies which take relatively extensive time hence overall time allotted for dissertation cound enhanced. However, Gantt chart was followed to resolve the same issue by adjusting time for each research activities. In addition to this, primary data collected from interview process where some of the respondents might not be able to provide time. Owing to this, appropriate time was decided for them and then procedure for interview has been completed (Flick, 2011).

Insufficient secondary information-The information collected from secondary sources relies on different alternatives such as articles, books and other material. The issues was faced while collecting information related to London policy. This is because appropriate facts and figures were not provided. Owing to this, it might be possible that some of the important information are missed out. On the other hand, some of the secondary sources were restricted to use as access was not provided. Though they were important for study but their access created issues at the time of gathering important information.

Baisness of researcher-The interview process has been completed in accordance with own judgment of researcher. However, it was done so as to bring out appropriate outcome for the study (Franklin, 2012). On the other hand, it is possible that researcher may be biased in selecting sample size. Furthermore, efforts were made to reduce the limitation for completion of study in right manner.

REFERENCES

  • Bhattacharyya, K. D., 2009. Research Methodology. Excel Books India.
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  • Franklin, M., 2012. Understanding Research: Coping with the Quantitative - Qualitative Divide. Routledge.
  • Gordon, I. R. and Travers, T., 2010. London: planning the ungovernable city.City, culture and society.1(2). pp.49-55.
  • Gordon, I., 2014. Fitting a quart in a pint pot?: Development, displacement and/or densification in the London region. pp. 41-55.
  • Ihantola, E. and Kihn, L., 2011. Threats to validity and reliability in mixed methods accounting research. Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management. 8(1). pp.39–58.
  • Jackson, S., 2010. Research Methods: A Modular Approach. Cengage Learning.
  • Kothari, R. C., 2011. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Age International.
  • Kuada, J., 2012. Research Methodology: A Project Guide for University Students. Samfundslitteratur.
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  • Saunders, M. and et. al., 2007. Research Methods for Business Students. 4th edition, Prentice Hall.
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